Том 64, № 1 (2018)
Гляциология и криология земли
| ||И.И. Василевич, Р.А. Чернов. К оценке снегозапасов в русловых врезах методом георадиолокации на территории Арктического региона (.pdf)||5|
| ||П.В. Богородский, А.П. Макштас, В.Ю. Кустов, В.В. Мовчан. Динамика сезонного протаивания мерзлоты в районе научно-исследовательского стационара «Ледовая база “Мыс Баранова”» (о. Большевик, арх. Северная Земля) (.pdf)||16|
Физика атмосферы и гидросферы
| ||Ю.А. Шмелев, О.А. Мальцева, В.Е. Морозов, Д.И. Шилов, С.А. Безвытный. Тестирование модели IRI по данным российских ионосферных станций Ловозеро, Салехард, Диксон, Тунгуска и Якутск (.pdf)||31|
| ||П.В. Аксенов, В.В. Иванов. «Атлантификация» как вероятная причина сокращения площади морского льда в бассейне Нансена в зимний сезон (.pdf)||42|
| ||С.А. Солдатенко, Г.В. Алексеев, Н.Е. Иванов, А.Е. Вязилова, Н.Е. Харланенкова. Об оценке климатических рисков и уязвимости природных и хозяйственных систем в морской арктической зоне РФ (.pdf)||55|
Экология. Биоценология. Биогеография
| ||К.В. Маклаков, Н.В. Малыгина. Адаптивные изменения сезонных миграций диких северных оленей на Таймыре (.pdf)||71|
Гидрология суши, гидрохимия
| ||В.А. Румянцев, А.В. Измайлова, Л.Н. Крюков. Состояние водных ресурсов озер Арктической зоны Российской Федерации (.pdf)||84|
| ||О.М. Макарьева, Н.В. Нестерова, И.Н. Бельдиман, Л.С. Лебедева. Актуальные проблемы гидрологических расчетов в арктической зоне Российской Федерации и сопредельных территориях распространения многолетней мерзлоты (.pdf)||101|
Table of contents
Glaciology and cryology of the earth
| ||I.I. Vasilevich, R.A. Chernov. Ground-penetrating Radar Estimation of Snow Reserves
in Watercourses in the Arctic Region
Keywords: ground-penetrating radar, Northern Land archipelago, river beds, snow cover.
For a reliable estimate of snow reserves in the Arctic Archipelago proper allowance must be made for snow accumulation in the areas of relief lowering such as riverbeds, ravines and canyons. As applied to calculating the water yield from the catchment area, unaccounted reserves in the channels may be even larger than recorded. For thickness of the snow cover on similar objects measuring was used Picor-Led ground-penetrating radar. Test measurements of the thickness of the snow cover performed both by radar and manually showed good repeatability of measurements. Data on snow reserves in the catchments of the Mushketov and Amba rivers were obtained using the radar method for northern part of Bolshevik Island in spring 2017.
Measurements results has revealed significant differences in the amount of snow reserves between the plateau sections and the river valleys. The thickness of seasonal snow cover in the riverbeds and canyons varied widely and reached 10.5 meters depth. The average values of snow thickness cover on the plateau and in the riverbeds of the Mushketov and Amba rivers were 0.37, 1.80 and 1.86 m respectively during the period of maximum snow accumulation. Our estimates showed that snow deposits in riverbeds have specific snow reserves 6.5–7.5 times higher than speci fi c snow reserves on the plateau. In addition, 6 the radar survey revealed the possibility not only to determine the actual thickness of seasonal snow cover but also to study the structure of perennial snow fields and their ice nuclei.
For citation: I.I. Vasilevich, R.A. Chernov Ground-penetrating Radar Estimation of Snow Reserves in Watercourses in the Arctic Region. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64 (1): 5–15. [In Russian].
| ||P.V. Bogorodskii, A.P. Makshtas, V.Yu. Kustov, V.V. Movchan. The Dynamics of Seasonal Thawing of Permafrost in the Region of Research Station “Ice Base “Cape Baranov” (Bolshevik Island, Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago)
Keywords: active soil layer, measurements, modeling, permafrost, thawing, Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, snow cover, thermal regime, vegetation.
The results of permafrost observations in the northern part of the Bolshevik Island (Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago) started in February 2016 at the meteorological site of the research station “Ice Base “Cape Baranov” are presented. Features of two-year measurements of temperature, heat flux and humidity in the soil active layer due to the processes of its seasonal thawing/freezing, including the so-called “zero curtain effect” are described. The review of climatic and landscape characteristics of the research area, as well as the parameterization of thermophysical properties of the three main types of arctic soils (sandy, sandy loamy and clayey) in the frozen and thawed state was performed. Using the stationary model, realizing the Kudryavtsev’s algorithm, the data of atmospheric reanalysis and direct meteorological observations, interannual variability of seasonal thawing depth as well as mean annual temperature of permafrost surface for various soil types on the Bolshevik Island were obtained. It is shown that the permafrost-climatic changes during last 70 years, despite significant interannual fluctuations, reflecting the variability of atmospheric conditions at the Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago, are consistent with global temperature increase, and taken into account variations in the snow layer thicknesses and vegetation cover are close to the same measured in 2016–2017 years.
For citation: P.V. Bogorodskii, A.P. Makshtas, V.Yu. Kustov, V.V. Movchan. The dynamics of seasonal thawing of permafrost in the region of the Ice Base “Mys Baranova” (Bolshevik Island, Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago). Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64 (1): 16–30. [In Russian].
Atmosphere and hydrosphere physic
| ||J.A. Shmelev, O.A. Maltseva, V.E. Morozov, D.I. Shilov, S.A. Bezvytnyj. Testing of the IRI Model by Data from Lovozero, Dickson, Tunguska, and Yakutsk Ionospheric Stations
Keywords: Arctic region, critical frequency, Ionosphere, total electron content.
Empirical models are one of effective ways to set and predict a condition of the ionosphere. To estimate an accuracy of such setting it is necessary to test models by means of experimental data. One of most widely used models is IRI (International Reference Ionisphere), however it is insufficiently tested in the region of high latitudes. In the given article results of testing of the model IRI according to vertical sounding on Russian ionosondes, located in subauroral and high-latitude zones in March–April 2016 are presented. Feature of the period is presence of several geomagnetic disturbances. The studied parameter is a critical frequency foF2, the basic analyzed magnitude is the deviation of a model value from experimental one and its relative mean square deviation. Despite increase last years of numbers of ionosondes in a Russian Arctic zone by efforts of AARI, their number is not enough for detailed monitoring. Additionally, it is possible to use receivers of signals of navigation satellites of such systems, as GPS, GLONASS, providing the information about a total electron content (ТЕС). In a number of papers, possibility of use of ТЕС to obtain critical frequencies is shown. In the present paper, confirmation of this possibility is given in subauroral and high-latitude regions. Results are presented for five Russian stations (Lovozero, Salekhard, Dickson, Tunguska, Yakutsk) in comparison with data of reference middle-latitude station Juliustuh. It is shown, that deviations of model values of foF2 from experimental medians in high latitudes are at level of middle-latitude values, relative deviations for instant values of foF2 day by day do not exceed 20–25 %. The ТЕС usage allows decreasing this estimation in 2 times. Values of correlation coefficients between foF2 and ТЕС, defining possibility to use ТЕС for obtaining foF2, lay within 0.6–0.99. The ТЕС usage allows filling absent values of foF2.
For citation: J.A. Shmelev, O.A. Maltseva, V.E. Morozov, D.I. Shilov, S.A. Bezvytnyj. Testing of the IRI Model by Data from Lovozero, Dickson, Tunguska, and Yakutsk Ionospheric Stations. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64 (1): 31–41. [In Russian].
| ||P.V. Aksenov, V.V. Ivanov. “Atlantification” as a Possible Cause for Reducing
of the Sea-Ice Cover in the Nansen Basin in winter||42|
Keywords: Arctic Ocean, hydrological regime, ice cover, reanalysis, thermal convection, vertical structure.
The paper presents arguments in favor of an explanation of the reduction of the ice-covered area in the Nansen basin of the Arctic Ocean (AO) in winter by the so-called “atlantification “ — the strengthening of the influence of waters of Atlantic origin on the hydrological regime of the Arctic Ocean. We hypothesize that the main agent of “atlantification” in the Western Nansen Basin is winter thermal convection, which delivers heat from the deep to the upper mixed layer, thus melting sea ice and warming the near-surface air. To check up this hypothesis we used ocean reanalysis MERCATOR data for time interval 2007–2017. The quantitative criterion of thermal convection, based on the type of vertical thermohaline structure in the upper ocean layer, was applied to access the change of convection depth between climatic values in 1950–1990 and the present time. The main conclusion of the paper can be summarized as the following. Due to a gradual reduction of sea ice in the 1990s, the vertical stratification of waters in the Western Nansen Basin has changed. As a result, the potential for penetration of vertical thermal convection into the warm and saline Atlantic layer and the consumption of heat and salt content of this layer for warming and salinification of the overlying waters increased, thus leading to additional loss of sea ice in winter.
For citation: P.V. Aksenov, V.V. Ivanov. “Atlantification” as a Possible Cause for Reducing of the Sea-Ice Cover in the Nansen Basin in winter. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64 (1): 42–54. [In Russian].
| ||S.A. Soldatenko, G.V. Alekseev, N.E. Ivanov, A.E. Vyazilova, N.E. Kharlanenkova. On Assessment of Climatic Risks and Vulnerability of Natural and Economic Systems
in the Sea Zone of the Russian Arctic||55|
Keywords: Arctic, climatic risks, economic systems, vulnerability.
The article presents an analysis of the impacts of climate change on the natural and economic systems of the Arctic and the existing methods for assessing climatic risks. Based on the analysis of the impact of climate change on natural and economic systems and the Arctic population, a register of risks due to climate change has been formed. A conceptual model for assessing the impact of climate change on various systems is proposed. The main problems in the identification of climatic risks in the Arctic are identified. Indicators of climate change were selected: the surface air temperature; sea ice extent and the frequency of dangerous hydrometeorological phenomena that affect economic activity in the Arctic sea zone and its individual regions. The assessment methodology of natural and economic systems vulnerabilities in the Russian Arctic sea zone, including susceptibility to impacts, sensitivity and adaptive potential, is considered. These are the key factors on the basis of which the systems vulnerability to climate change is determined, as well as the information support of the processes of assessment and reduction of the consequences of climate threats. The algorithm of the developed methodology for vulnerability determining includes a sequence of 7 steps.
For citation: S.A. Soldatenko, G.V. Alekseev, N.E. Ivanov, A.E. Vyazilova, N.E. Kharlanenkova.On Assessment of Climatic Risks and Vulnerability of Natural and Economic Systems in the Sea Zone of the Russian Arctic. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64 (1): 55–70. [In Russian].
Ecology. Biocenology. Biogeography
| ||K.V. Maklakov, N.V. Malygina. Adaptive Change in Wild Reindeer Seasonal Migrations in the Taimyr Peninsula||71|
Keywords: ambient temperature, bioenergetics, climate change, energy expenditures, grazing, local populations, population, Rangifer tarandus L., reindeer, Taimyr.
As the largest in the world the Taimyr population of wild reindeer displays pronounced seasonal migrations from forest zone to tundra for fawning in spring and return motion in fall. These motions are characterized with dynamics varying from year to year. Evidences of experience suggest that migration course cannot yet be interrupted or curtailed with artificial constructions or anthropogenic disturbance. By results of long-term observations carried out by one of the authors during 20 years, migration timing and speed were related to current ambient temperature and varied from year to year. As foreseen temperature rise happens more intensively in Arctic than upon an average through the Planet and is higher overland than it is over ocean it must apparently exert in fluence on the pattern of reindeer migrations. We hold that this phenomenon consists with changes in migration activity for recent decades and manifests increasing all-year-round separate reindeer groups presence in tundra. Some of these groups are registered and presented on the skeleton map. In the light of current climatic trend the ecological mechanism of migrations decrease should be grounded on reindeer bioenergetics and derived from ecological function of their migrations. Energy expenditures for far movements are getting less appropriate and the proportion of total heads staying in tundra zone all-year-round will increase. Available bioenergetics parameters and the simple model let to make a prediction. In the end we propose some preventive conservation arrangements to secure the mass heads of wild reindeer staying in tundra against adverse factors, mainly pending anthropogenic.
For citation: K.V. Maklakov, N.V. Malygina. Adaptive Change in Wild Reindeer Seasonal Migrations in the Taimyr Peninsula. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64 (1): 71–83. [In Russian].
Hydrology of land, hydrochemistry
| ||V.A. Rumyantsev, A.V. Izmailova, L.N. Kryukov. State of Lake Water Resources in the Russian Arctic Zone
Keywords: Arctic zone, Far North, microorganism, , toxic contamination, virus, water resources.
Regions of the Russian Federation classified among Arctic zone estimated to 22% of Russian territory. Arctic is characterized by the richest reserves of natural resources, and its phased, balanced development is the most important strategic task of Russia’s socioeconomic development. Production and household activities of the population of Russia living and working in the far North is associated with difficult climatic and geographical conditions. In this case, the constant cold and consumption of contaminated water can lead to aggravation of various human disease. The Arctic zone of the Russian Federation is characterized by the richness of water resources as rapidly renewable (river runoff and its underground component), and static one to which are assigned the waters of lakes, underground waters, waters (ice) of mountain and polar glaciers. A characteristic feature of water consumption in the Arctic regions is the active use of lake water, which in a number of settlements is the main source of drinking water supply. In this regard, the assessment of the lake’s fund of Arctic zone and its ecological status is extremely topical.
According to the assessments, more than 2.5 million water bodies, that is a ~2/3 of all water bodies of the country, are decoded in the Arctic zone of the Russian Federation on satellite images. Mainly, these are small water bodies, only about 975 thousand of them exceed 1 ha. The total area of the water surface of Arctic lakes is ~160 thousand km2 (slightly less than a half of the total water surface of all natural water bodies of the Russian Federation), and the total volume of water enclosed in them is ~760 km3.
Even in the middle of the 20th century, the lakes of the Russian Arctic, with rare exceptions, were characterized by the highest quality of their waters, but by now the ecological status of many water bodies has deteriorated significantly. The vulnerability of Arctic lakes to pollution is enhanced both by virtue of the peculiarities of their orometry and by the simplicity of the biological communities of northern ecosystems characterized by a low degree of stability. The poor knowledge of Arctic water bodies does not allow taking the necessary preventive measures for their protection and rational use. In this connection, attention to the expansion of works on the integrated study of limnology of water bodies included in the lake fund of the Arctic zone should be paid.
An estimation of water resources of lakes of the Arctic zone of Russia, their ecological status and the questions of etiology of diseases on the territories of the Far North are given in this article. The morbidity of the population of the Arctic regions of Russia today is much higher than the national average. Further development of the territory and the observed warming of the climate will lead to increasing pollution of freshwater resources with toxic substances, pathogenic microorganisms and viruses. This will exacerbate the issue of ensuring environmental safety and meeting the needs of the population in quality drinking water. The situation is further aggravated by the fact that the most affordable technologies for water treatment and wastewater treatment in conditions of low temperatures and high content of humic substances in the initial water cannot ensure the proper level of disinfection. In this regard, one of the topical issues is the creation of innovative technologies for water purification that are more adequate to the conditions of the Arctic zone of Russia.
For citation: V.A. Rumyantsev, A.V. Izmailova, L.N. Kryukov. State of Lake Water Resources in the Russian Arctic Zone. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64 (1): 84–100. [In Russian].
| ||O.M. Makarieva, N.V. Nesterova, I.N. Beldiman, L.S. Lebedeva. Actual Problems of Hydrological Assessments in the Arctic Zone of Russian Federation and Adjacent Permafrost Territories
Keywords: Arctic zone, floods, hydrological engineering, hydrological safety, mathematical modeling, permafrost, SP-33-101-2003.
The article reveals the main problems facing hydrologists in engineering design in the Arctic zone of Russia and adjacent territories of permafrost. Climate warming and degradation of permafrost cause a significant transformation of the hydrological cycle. The retrospective observations of runoff cannot be considered therefore in modern conditions. The density of the hydrological network in the permafrost zone of Russia has decreased by more than 1.5 times, and on small rivers – more than three times in recent decades. Thus, the use of standard calculation methods (SP 33-101-2003) to assess the runoff characteristics in the Arctic regions is practically impossible. It is shown that in the developed Arctic countries where the size of the territories and their inaccessibility could be compared with with Russia, the low density of the standard observation network is compensated by the organization of small scientific research stations for studying hydrological processes in various physical and geographical conditions and the development of mathematical modeling methods. It is shown that historically Russia was the leader of hydrological research in cold regions. It is stated that there is an urgent need to create a state program aimed at restoring the previously operating in the cryolithоzone and organizing new research hydrological watersheds, improving the standard hydrological network, and developing complex modeling systems and methods for their parameterization.
For citation: O.M. Makarieva, N.V. Nesterova, I.N. Beldiman, L.S. Lebedeva. Actual Problems of Hydrological Assessments in the Arctic Zone of Russian Federation and Adjacent Permafrost Territories. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64 (1): 101–118. [In Russian].
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