№ 1 (103) 2015
| ||С.В. Фролов. Деятельность Арктического института в годы
Великой Отечественной войны (К 95-летию ААНИИ и 70-летию Победы
в Великой Отечественной войне) (.pdf)||5|
| ||А.В. Клепиков, А.И. Данилов, В.Я. Липенков, Г.Л. Лейченков, А.В. Неелов.
Основные результаты научных работ по подпрограмме «Изучение
и исследование Антарктики» ФЦП «Мировой океан» (.pdf)||19|
| ||Г.В. Алексеев, В.Ф. Радионов, Е.И. Александров, Н.Е. Иванов, Н.Е. Харланенкова.
Изменения климата Арктики при глобальном потеплении
| ||И.М.Ашик, В.В. Иванов, Х. Кассенс, М.С.Махотин, И.В. Поляков, Л.А. Тимохов, И.Е.Фролов, Е. Хёлеманн. Основные результаты океанологических исследований Северного Ледовитого океана в последнее десятилетие (.pdf)||42|
| ||Е.У. Миронов, Ю.П. Гудошников, В.Н. Смирнов. Современные методы
ледовых исследований и изысканий на шельфе арктических морей
| ||Д.О. Владимирова, А.А. Екайкин, В.Я. Липенков, С.В. Попов, Ю.А Шибаев.
Пространственная изменчивость скорости накопления и изотопного состава
снега в Индоокеанском секторе Восточной Антарктиды,
включая район подледникового озера Восток
| ||О.А.Трошичев. Mониторинг космической погоды и состояния магнитосферы
по наземным данным о магнитной активности в полярных шапках (РС индекс) (.pdf)||87|
| ||Н.А. Крупина, В.А. Лихоманов, П.В. Максимова, П.М. Николаев, А.В. Савицкая,
И.А. Свистунов, А.В. Чернов. Итоги работы Большого ледового бассейна ААНИИ
(к 25-летию со дня ввода в строй) (.pdf)||101|
| ||С.Б. Лесенков, Р.Е. Власенков. К 65-летнему юбилею
Полевой базы ААНИИ «Ладога» (.pdf)||111|
Table of contents
| ||S.V. Frolov. Activity of the Arctic Institute in the years of the Great Patriotic War
(To the 95th anniversary of the AARI and the 70th anniversary of Victory
in the Great Patriotic War)
The article covers the activity of specialists of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute in the years of the Great Patriotic War. The main task of the Institute in these years was improvement of methods for collection of ice and hydrometeorological information and development of new methods of preparation of meteorological and ice forecasts with a different period in advance for support of navigation of transport and naval ships along the Northern Sea Route. The role of specialists in the work of the Headquarters of Marine Operations, in performing airborne ice reconnaissance, in the “Ice Patrol” expeditions and participation in military operations are shown. Special attention is given to scientific activity of the Institute during the evacuation period.
Keywords: Great Patriotic War, Arctic Institute, Northern Sea Route, ice and meteorological forecasts, airborne ice reconnaissance, “Ice Patrol”, scientific-operational support of navigation.
| ||A.V. Klepikov, A.I. Danilov, V.Ya. Lipenkov, G.L. Leychenkov, A.V. Neelov.
The main results of scientific studies of the subprogram “Study and Research
of the Antarctic” FTP “World Ocean”
This article provides an overview of the main scientific results obtained during the impementation of the subprogram “Study and Research of the Antarctic” of Federal Targeted Program “World Ocean”. These are the results of Russian studies of the ocean, atmosphere, subglacial lakes, lithosphere and Antarctic ecosystems.
Keywords: Antarctica, climate, lithosphere, subglacial lake, ecosystem, Southern Ocean.
| ||G.V. Alekseev, V.F. Radionov, E.I. Aleksandrov, N.E. Ivanov, N.E. Kharlanenkova.
Arctic climate change under global warming
The paper presents the evaluation of climate change in the Arctic during the development of the global warming, and considers the role of various factors in their Arctic amplification. It is shown that increase of surface air temperature began in the 1990s and reached its peak in 2012. Rapid reduction of the Arctic sea ice cover at the end of the summer occurred concurrently and reached the deepest minimum in September 2012. The inflow of warm and salty Atlantic water and displacement limits of its distribution in the sub Atlantic Arctic impacts on changes of sea ice extent in winter, especially noticeable in the Barents Sea. It is proposed that the greatest contribution to amplified warming of the Arctic climate belong the poleward atmospheric transport of heat.
Keywords: Arctic, global warming, arctic amplification.
| ||I.M. Ashik, V.V. Ivanov, H. Kassens, M.S. Makhotin, I.V. Polyakov, L.A. Timokhov,
I.E. Frolov, J.A. Hoelemann. Major results of oceanographic studies
of the Arctic ocean during the last decade
An overview of the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) oceanographic studies over the last seven years is presented. A brief description of expedition activities is given. The most important studies of the oceanographic processes such as advection and transformation of Atlantic waters in the Eurasian Basin and marginal arctic seas, intrusions and cascading on the shelf and continental slope of Franz Joseph Land, near-bottom processes in the Laptev Sea are highlighted. The last section is devoted to interannual changes of the key characteristics of the Arctic Ocean during the last decade relative to historical period of 1948-1993; new information about changes of sea level in the Arctic seas and dynamic ocean topography, the thermohaline characteristics of Arctic Ocean and their correspondence to changes of external factors is provided. It is hypothesized that the return of the Arctic Ocean to its climatic mean state observed in the last century or the beginning of irreversible reconstruction of the structure of climatic system (e.g. thermohaline fields, oceanic circulation, macrostructure and drift of the sea ice cover) will depend on tendencies driven by global climate change.
Keywords: The Arctic Ocean, oceanographic studies, Atlantic waters in the Arctic basin, intrusions, cascading, cold shelf waters, Pacific waters, interannual changes of key characteristics of the Arctic Ocean, sea level of the Arctic seas, dynamic topography of the ocean, long-term variability of thermohaline characteristics.
| ||Ye.U. Mironov, Yu.P. Gudoshnikov, V.N. Smirnov. Сurrent methods of ice studies and explorations on the shelf of the Аrctic seas||57|
Current methods of observations and measurements of morphometric, physical-mechanical and dynamic characteristics of ice floes, ice ridges, stamukhas and icebergs are considered. These methods have been widely used in the last few years in ice studies and explorations in the Russian Arctic offshore.
Keywords: morphometry, physical-mechanical properties, dynamics, ice features, shelf, Arctic Seas.
| ||D.O. Vladimirova, A.A. Ekaykin, V.Ya. Lipenkov, S.V. Popov, Yu.A. Shibaev. Spatial variability of the accumulation rate and isotopic composition of the snow in Indian
ocean sector of East Antarctica including the vicinity of subglacial lake Vostok
For the first time on the base of reliable field data the maps of accumulation rate, isotopic composition and density of the snow were built for Indian ocean sector of East Antarctica and particularly for the vicinity of subglacial lake Vostok. Interpretation of these maps allowed us to assume regional regularities of the variability of defined parameters. The area of minimum values of the isotopic composition and accumulation of the snow was found. It was also shown that in Central Antarctica the distribution of glaciological and climatic characteristics does not obey well the rules of latitudinal and altitudinal zonality and is predominantly controlled by distance to the moisture source. The complicated interconnection between snow isotopic composition and surface air temperature in Central Antarctica was depicted. It was demonstrated for the first time that the surface of the glacier above subglacial lakes presents a unique locality with special meteorological and glaciological conditions.
Keywords: East Antarctica, subglacial Lake Vostok, isotopic composition, mapping, spatial variability, accumulation rate, snow thickness, physical properties of snow.
| ||O.A. Troshichev. PC index as a new ground-based means for exploration
of short-term changes in space weather and magnetosphere state
The PC index has been initially introduced as an indicator of the polar cap magnetic activity, generated by the geoeffective interplanetary electric field EKL. The 1-min PC index is calculated independently for the northern and southern hemisphere from data of the near-polar magnetic observatories Qaanaaq in Greenland (PCN) and Vostok in Antarctica (PCS), with use of the unified method. The PC index is a IAGA-endorsed index and proxy of the solar wind energy input into the magnetosphere (XII IAGA Assembly Resolutions, 2013). The following experimental facts are indicative of this distinctive property of the PC index: (1) magnetic storms and substorms are always preceded by РС index growth, (2) the PC index behavior before the substrom sudden onset (SO) is perfectly related to variations of the EKL field, (3) the substorm onsets are commonly associated with a sharp increase in the PC (and EKL) growth rate, (4) delay time ΔT in the PC response to solar wind disturbances is controlled by the EKL growth rate (dEKL/dt), (5) the substorm occurrence reaches the maximum when PC exceeds the value of ~ (1,5±0,5) mV/m, (6) linear correlation between the PC and AL values is typical for all classes of the substorms, (7) the magnetic storm main phase starts to develop as soon as the PC index steadily exceeds the threshold level of 1,5 mV/m, (8) the maximal depression of magnetic field follows the PC maximum with a delay of ~1 hour, the storm intensity (Dstmin) being linearly depending on PCmax value, (9) correlation between EKL and PC was absent in ~10% of the examined events when the solar wind observed by the ACE spacecraft at L1 position passed by the magnetosphere.
Keywords: PC index, interplanetary electric field, magnetospheric substorms, magnetic storms, solar wind — magnetosphere — ionosphere coupling.
| ||N.A. Krupina, V.A. Likhomanov, P.V. Maksimova, P.M. Nikolaev, A.V. Savitskaya, I.A. Svistunov, A.V. Chernov. Results of work of large ice tank of AARI
(to the 25th anniversary of the commissioning)
Large ice tank AARI was commissioned in 1990 to replace the world’s first ice tank, located in the old building of the institute. For 25 years, his work has expanded the range of studies carried out, have developed new methods of preparation and experimentation, advanced measuring equipment. The article briefly describes the basic principles of physical modeling and experimental equipment used in the ice tank and also contains the most interesting and promising experimental work.
Keywords: ice tank, physical modelling, similarity criterion, ice properties, ice capability, ice loads, offshore structure.
| ||S.B. Lesenkov, R.E. Vlasenkov. On the 65 anniversary of AARI’s field station “Ladoga”||111|
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