№ 1 (99) 2014
| ||Н.А. Корнилов, Л.М. Саватюгин, И.Н. Сократова.
К 100-летию А.Ф. Трёшникова (.pdf)||5|
| ||Э.И. Саруханян. Только берегите эту Землю! (.pdf)||15|
| ||В.В. Лукин. Российская антарктическая экспедиция на рубеже веков.
Связь времен и поколений (.pdf)||22|
| ||Г.В. Алексеев. Исследования взаимодействия океана и атмосферы в Северной
полярной области по программам крупномасштабных натурных экспериментов НЭВ, «ПОЛЭКС-Север», «Разрезы» в 1960—1980-е годы (.pdf)||41|
| ||А.П. Макштас, В.Ф. Тимачев, В.Т. Соколов, В.Ю. Кустов, И.А. Говорина.
Процессы турбулентного энергообмена на границе морской лед — атмосфера
по историческим данным и данным дрейфующих станций «Северный полюс-35»
и «Северный полюс-39» (.pdf)||53|
| ||Н.Н. Антипов, А.И. Данилов, А.В. Клепиков. Исследования Южного океана
по научным программам ААНИИ: от программы «ПОЛЭКС-Юг»
до ФЦП «Мировой океан» (.pdf)||65|
| ||А.И. Коротков, С.В. Кашин. Антарктический припай — эффективный
показатель характера развития ледовых процессов в Южном океане (.pdf)||86|
| ||Д.О. Владимирова, А.А. Екайкин. Климатическая изменчивость в секторе
моря Дейвиса (Восточная Антарктида) за последние 250 лет по данным
геохимических исследований ледяного керна из скважины 105-й км (.pdf)||102|
| ||Г.Л. Лейченков, В.Я. Липенков, А.В. Антонов, С.А. Булат, F. Charlot,
И.А. Алёхина, А.А. Екайкин, Б.В. Беляцкий. Природа микрочастиц,
обнаруженных в скважине после вскрытия озера Восток (.pdf)||114|
| ||Памяти Ю.А. Израэля (.pdf)||123|
| ||Памяти З.М. Гудковича (.pdf)||125|
Table of contents
| ||N.A. Kornilov, L.M. Savatyugin, I.N. Socratova.
In honour of the100th anniversary of the A.F. Tryoshnikov’s birth||5|
| ||E.I. Sarukhanyan. Only remember to take care of Earth!||15|
| ||V.V. Lukin. Russian Antarctic Expedition at the turn of the century. Relation
of times and generations. Problems Arctic and Antarctic||22|
The article consideres the reasons to set up a permanent national Antarctic expedition of our country. Some unknown earlier archive records were used in the publication. Geopolitical situation of the “cold war” period which stimulated the development of the USSR Complex Antarctic Expedition in 1955 is analyzed. It is proposed to divide the activities of the USSR — Russian Federation in Antarctica into stages as follows – reconnaissance period (1955—1969), resource period (1970—1991) and current period (from 1992 until present day). Considerable attention is given to the development of legal documents governing the general directions of Russian activities in Antarctica, their financial support as well as their compliance with active norms of international law. It is underlined that during the whole 59-year period of CAE—SAE—RAE activities the political, scientific and logistic continuity in the basic decision adoption on further strategy of Russian activities in Antarctica remains invariable.
Keywords: USSR and Russia in Antarctica, geopolitical interests, CAE, SAE, RAE, Antarctic stations and seasonal bases, ships and aircraft, legal documents.
| ||G.V. Alekseev. Studies of the Ocean and Atmosphere interaction
in the North polar area on programs of the large scale field experiments
“FEI”, “POLEX-Sever”, “SECTIONS” in 1960—1980s||41|
A brief history of large scale field observations in the North Icy Ocean and adjacent the Northern Atlantic and North Pacific under leadership A.F. Treshnikov is presented. The evolution from first “Field experiment on interaction of the ocean and atmosphere” (FEI, 1967—1970) to the program “Polar experiment” (POLEX-Sever, 1971—1981) and then to the program “POLEX-Sever/Sections” (1981-1989) is traced. Specific attention to the largest field experiment in the North Polar Area “POLEX-Sever-76”is attended. Some important results of the large scale field studies in 1960–1980s are shown.
Keywords: A.F. Treshnikov, ocean and atmosphere interactions, field observations, 1960—1980s.
| ||A.P. Makshtas, V.F. Timachev, V.T. Sokolov, V.Yu Kustov, I.A. Govorina. Turbulent
energy exchange Processes on the boundary of Sea ice — atmosphere on historical
data and data of drifting stations “North Pole-35” and “North Pole-39”||53|
The method for calculations of turbulent heat fluxes in the atmospheric surface layer, based on the modern parametrizations, is described. Validation of the method is executed with data of direct measurements fulfilled at the drifting station SHEBA. On the basis of data from meteorological observations at the drifting stations “North Pole-35” and “North Pole-39”, published historical data of drifting station “North Pole-4” and the model estimations preliminary analysis of spatial - temporal variability of turbulent energy exchange in the different regions of the Arctic Ocean is presented. The analysis of monthly and hourly values of sensible and latent turbulent heat fluxes reveals peculiarities of the annual cycle of turbulent energy exchange in the area at the northern periphery of the Barents and Kara seas, where the drift of station “North Pole-35” had place.
Keywords: method for calculation of vertical turbulent heat fluxes, atmospheric surface layer, drifting station, meteorological observations.
| ||N.N. Antipov, A.I. Danilov, A.V. Klepikov. Studies of the Southern Ocean within
the AARI scientific programmes: from POLEX-South programme
to FTP “The World Ocean”||65|
Nine large-scale field experiments to study the Antarctic Circumpolar Current, made between 1975 and 1986 under the “POLEX-South” programme, provided with the base of modern fundamental knowledge on the water mass structure and the circulation of the Southern Ocean. The history of the organization, implementation and the main results of these expeditions, as well as the results of research expeditions in the Southern Ocean obtained by the AARI scientists over the past two decades.
Keywords: Antarctica, Polar experiment, Southern Ocean.
| ||A.I. Korotkov, S.V. Kashin. Antarctic fast ice as an effective indicator
of the development of ice processes in the Southern Ocean||86|
Fast ice is the indicator of the sea ice extent and conditions of sailing in the Antarctic waters. The one-year fast ice in the Antarctic in the new millennium demonstrates the tendency of reducing of the thickness while the date of its breaking moves forward up to situation of no breaking. It seems the main mechanism for the observed increase in the Southern Ocean ice cover and the related worsening of the conditions of navigation is the increase of the amount of multi-year ice due to the development of the multi-year fast ice. There are two main types of the fast ice development depending from the oceanographic conditions: the equilibrium state of about 2—2,5 m thick and permanent growth of the ice thickness up to its transformations into the ice shelf.
Keywords: Antarctica, fast ice, thickness, dates of breaking the fast ice, sea ice extent, conditions of navigation, current trend.
| ||D.O. Vladimirova, A.A. Ekaykin. Climatic variability in Davis Sea sector
(East Antarctica) over the past 250 years based on the 105 km ice core
In this study we present the air temperature and snow accumulation rate reconstruction in the Davis sea sector of East Antarctica over the past 250 years based on the geochemical investigations of the ice core from 105 km borehole (105 km inland from Mirny Station) drilled in 1988. The core was dated by the counting of the annual layers in the stable water isotope content (δD and δ18O) profile and using the absolute date marker (Tambora volcano layer). The accumulation values were deduced from the thickness of the layers multiplied by the core density. The isotope content was transformed into the air temperature by comparing to the instrumental meteorological data from Mirny station. The reconstructed temperature series demonstrates a 0,5 °C warming over the last 250 years and the snow accumulation rate decreasing at least since the middle of the XIXth century. The climatic characteristics demonstrate cyclic variability with the periods of 6, 9, 19, 32 and about 120 years.
Keywords: Antarctica, climate variability, isotopic composition, paleoclimate, snow accumulation, air temperature, ice cores.
| ||G.L. Leychenkov, V.Ya. Lipenkov, A.V. Antonov, S.A. Bulat, F. Charlot, I.A. Alyokhina, A.A. Ekaykin, B.V. Belyatsky. The nature of microparticles found the borehole after unsealing of lake Vostok||114|
After unsealing of Lake Vostok by drilling in 2012 (at depth of 3769,3 m), the lake water was risen few hundred meters into the borehole and then frozen. The deepest ice core of the accreted ice (3768,4—3769,3 m), retrieved from the well was covered with brownish film-like deposit which formed as a result of lake water penetration between the drilling bit and the ice core. Optical studies showed that this deposit consists of microparticles of up to 70 mkm across. For definition of nature and origin of these particles they were studied using SEM and X-ray microprobe. Based on this study, it was established that most of particles (85—90 %) are metal oxides and has technogenic origin. Other particles (5—10 %) are represented by silicates and clasts of quartz, corundum and ilmenite which range from 10 to 70 mkm in size. In 2013, the frozen water was sampled. SEM and microprobe analyses discovered quarts and calcium carbonate in the cores of frozen water. All mineral microparticles are proposed to come from the lake indicate the existence of fine-grained suspension and water circulation at least in the uppermost lake water layer.
Keywords: Antarctica, Subglacial Lake Vostok, ice cores, Electron microscope, minerals, chemical elements.
| ||In Memory of Yu.A. Izrael ||123|
| ||In Memory of Z.M. Gudkovich ||125|
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