№ 2 (92) 2012
| ||Редколлегия Журналу «Проблемы Арктики и Антарктики» – 75 лет! (.pdf)||5|
| ||М.Ю.Кулаков, А.П.Макштас, С.В.Шутилин. AARI–IOCM –
совместная модель циркуляции вод и льдов Северного Ледовитого океана
| ||В.И.Дымов, Н.П.Яковлева, Т.А.Пасечник, В.В.Алексеев Численные методы
расчета брызгового обледенения судов (.pdf)||19|
| ||С.Р.Веркулич, З.В.Пушина, А.Татур, Д.А.Гиличинский, А.А.Абрамов, М.Меллес. Изменения природной обстановки и диатомовая флора в оазисе Ширмахера
(Восточная Антарктида) в конце позднего неоплейстоцена и в голоцене
| ||Б.В.Иванов, А.К.Павлов, О.М.Андреев, Д.М.Журавский, П.Н.Священников. Исследования снежно-ледяного покрова залива Грён-фьорд (арх. Шпицберген): исторические данные, натурные исследования, моделирование
| ||М.Ю.Кулаков. О новом подходе к моделированию циркуляции вод
арктических морей (.pdf)||55|
| ||Р.Е.Власенков, А.П.Макштас. Исследование пространственно-временных
характеристик распределения взвеси в поверхностном слое шельфовых морей Российской Арктики (.pdf)||63|
| ||В.Я.Александров, М.П.Андреев, Л.Е.Курбатова. Увеличение площади расселения злака Deschampsia antarctica в окрестностях российской антарктической станции Беллинсгаузен (о-ва Кинг-Джордж и Нельсон, Южные Шетландские о-ва) в связи с общим потеплением климата в регионе (.pdf)||72|
| ||П.В.Богородский, А.П.Макштас, А.В.Пнюшков. Моделирование нарастания льда в заприпайной полынье (.pdf)||85|
| ||Г.В.Казко, Н.Н.Антипов, А.В.Клепиков. О глубокой конвекции на материковом склоне залива Прюдс (.pdf)||95|
| ||Л.М.Саватюгин. Покорению Северного полюса – 75 лет (.pdf)||113|
Table of contents
| ||Editorial board 75 years since the launch of the magazine «Problems of Arctic and Antarctic»!||5|
| ||M.Yu.Kulakov, A.P.Makshtas, S.V.Shutilin. AARI–IOCM – coupled ice-ocean
circulation model for the Arctic ocean||6|
The main features of the new coupled ice – water circulation dynamic-thermodynamic model,
developed in AARI for study of sea ice-hydrological regime of the Arctic Ocean, are described. The
results of its application to reproduction of ice conditions in the Arctic Ocean and the Laptev Sea
polynya formation are presented.
| ||V.I.Dymov, N.P.Yakovleva, T.A.Pasechnik, V.V.Alexeev. Numerical methods
for the sea-spray vessel icing||19|
A couple of numerical methods for the sea-spray vessel icing are examined. The Overland
method used by the National Weather Service (USA) and the method for sea-spray vessel icing based
on the complex model for wind, waves, and icing, developed by AARI are considered. The hindcasts
and forecasts for the Barents sea, produced by the complex AARI model, are compared to the storm
warnings issued by Hydrometeorological Centre of Russia.
| ||S.R.Verkulich, Z.V.Pushina, A.Tatur, D.A.Gilichinsky , A.А.Abramov, M.Melles. Late Pleistocene – Holocene environmental changes and diatom flora
in the Schirmacher oasis (East Antarctic)
The obtained results of radiocarbon dating and diatom analysis of bottom sediments from 8
lakes and terrestrial deposits from 4 cores allowed describing environmental changes and diatom
fl ora evolution in the Schirmacher Oasis: the shallow fresh-water lakes with diatom fl ora had existed
in the oasis before Last Glacial Maximum; the time of the oasis territory recolonization by diatom
fl ora is 7000-6000 yrs BP; during Holocene, the living conditions of diatom fl ora in the oasis lakes
were on the whole similar to present ones; development of the diatom fl ora in different lakes was
depended strongly on short-term climatic fl uctuations in the region (relative warming 3400–2600,
550–450 and 150 yrs BP; relative cooling 2200–1000, 300–200 and 100 yrs BP) and local factors.
| ||B.V.Ivanov, A.K.Pavlov, O.M.Andreev, D.M.Zhuravskiy, P.N.Svyashchennikov. Investigation of snow and ice cover in Grønfjorden (Spitsbergen): historical data,
in situ observations and modelling
In the study, results of in situ observations, historical data analysis and modeling are presented. Russian studies on sea ice in Grønfjorden have been carried out since 1936 nearby the Barentsburg
settlement until present days with a break during the Second World War (1941–1947). After 2002,
regular observations of land fast-ice in the fjord have been done by scientists from Arctic and Antarctic
Research Institute in framework of a project: “Investigation of meteorological regime and climatic
change on Spitsbergen”. Historical and modern data is a basis for objective estimates of seasonal
evolution and long-term variability of sea ice conditions in the second half of the XX century and the beginning of the XXI century.
| ||M.Yu.Kulakov. About the new approach to modelling of water circulation of the Arctic seas||55|
Methods of reconstruction of circulation of waters of the Arctic seas are analyzed by the example
of Kara sea. The original method based on use of new coupled model of waters and ice circulation
(AARI-IOCM) is offered. Circulation of waters of all Arctic ocean is simulated for the period of 2000
on 2010. The circulation pattern obtained by averaging of currents for June - September of chosen
decade is described. The contribution of buoyancy-forced and wind-driven components of current in circulation of the sea is estimated.
| ||R.E.Vlasenkov, A.P.Makshtas. Hydrooptical characteristics of the Kara and Laptev seas||63|
Based on the data of experimental investigations executed in ice-free parts of the Russian Arctic shelf Seas from the board of research vessels “Ivan Petrov” and “Ivan Kireev” in 2003–2008, and historical data, the spatial distributions of suspended matter in sea upper layer and its long-term variations are presented.
| ||V.Ya.Aleksandrov, M.P.Andreev, L.E.Kurbatova. Expansion of the grass Deschampsia antarctica in the vicinity of the Russian Antarctic Station “Bellingshausen” (King George I. and Nelson I., South Shetland Islands) as a result of the general warming in the region||72|
Remarkable expansion of the grass Deschampsia antarctica take place in the vicinity of the Russian Antarctic Station «Bellingshausen». The observations being occurred ca. 30 years ago have mentioned insignifi cant role of vascular plants in the vegetation. The investigations of 2000/2001 and especially of the last years refl ect signifi cant increasing of number and size of populations and the appearance of the second Antarctic vascular plant – Colobanthus quitensis. Expansion was explained by the general worming in the region. The climate conditions in the area and the dynamic of climate changes are given. Description of Deschampsia antarctica – anatomic-morphological, geographical and ecological are given. The results of author’s observations in 2008/2009 are discussed in compare with the previous data and with the observation’s results of authors on the adjacent Livingston Island.
| ||P.V.Bogorodskiy, A.P.Makshtas, A.V.Pnyushkov. Modeling of Ice growth in flaw lead||85|
The peculiarities of fl aw lead freezing were studied using the conceptual thermodynamic model. Mechanism of polynya forming under wind stress was analysed. Qquantitative characteristics of sea ice evolution for the Northeastern Taimyr area of Laptev Sea were obtained with the use of NCEP/NCAR reanalysis data as the atmospheric forcing.
| ||G.V.Kazko, N.N.Antipov, A.V.Klepikov. On deep convection at the continental slope of the Prydz Bay||95|
During the last several years the processes of the descending water at the continental slope in the region to the west of Prydz Bay, East Antarctica, were investigated at the hydrographic sections with the spatial resolution 2–3 miles. Data of CTD soundings show that Antarctic Shelf Water and Ice Shelf Water goes to the north along western border of Amery Depression and then fl ows down the continental slope in the region to the west of Prydz Channel (~72° E). Sections along 70° E were repeated 6 times from the r/v Akademik Fedorov during the period 2004–2012. Sinking of dense water plumes along continental slope was not found in the region to the east of 72° E. Descending water in the region to the west of Prydz Channel results in deep water ventilation and bottom water formation. Prydz Bay Bottom Water with the potential temperature –0,3... –1,6 °C and salinity 34,54–34,62 ‰ is found between 62 and 72° E at the depth 1300–2000 m. The results of modeling of convection with three-dimensional non-hydrostatic model for the 150 m depth basin are presented. The modeled vertical speed at the slope convection is about 1 cm/s, and the thickness of the modeled plume is about 100 m. Given the extent of the continental shelf and slope where the processes of downslope convection have been found, we can estimate the production rate of bottom water of about 1,6 Sv in the region to the west of Prydz Bay.
| ||L.M.Savatyugin. 75 years since the conquest of the North Pole||113|
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