№ 1 (91) 2012
| ||В.В.Лукин. Путь к изучению вод озера Восток открыт (.pdf)||5|
| ||С.М.Сакерин, Д.Г.Чернов, Д.М.Кабанов, В.С.Козлов, М.В.Панченко, В.В.Полькин, В.Ф.Радионов. Предварительные результаты исследований аэрозольных характеристик атмосферы в районе Баренцбурга (Шпицберген) (.pdf)||20|
| ||В.М.Шаймарданов. Создание информационных ресурсов по гидрометеорологии и в смежных с ней областях (.pdf)||32|
| ||А.П.Макштас, П.В.Богородский, В.Ю.Кустов. Быстрое таяние припайного льда в заливе Cого (бухта Тикси) весной 2011 г. (.pdf)||37|
| ||Ю.А.Горбунов, С.М.Лосев, Л.Н.Дымент Припай североземельских проливов. Разрушение, становление, возраст (.pdf)||48|
| ||А.П.Недашковский, Е.Д.Добротина, А.Л.Румянцев. Химический состав ледяных цветов, наблюдавшихся во время дрейфа станции СП-35 (.pdf)||60|
| ||Б.Р. Мавлюдов, Л.М. Саватюгин, И.Ю.Соловьянова. Реакция ледников Земли Норденшельда (арх. Шпицберген) на изменение климата (.pdf)||67|
| ||С.В.Клячкин, Р.И.Май. Прогностическая модель дрейфа айсберга (.pdf)||78|
| ||Л.А.Тимохов, Е.А.Чернявская, Е.Г.Никифоров, И.В.Поляков, В.Ю.Карпий. Статистическая модель межгодовой изменчивости полей зимней солености поверхностного слоя в Арктическом бассейне (.pdf)||89|
| ||В.Г.Смирнов. Спутниковый мониторинг опасных ледяных образований в районах эксплуатационных работ на морских месторождениях углеводородного сырья (.pdf)||103|
Table of contents
| ||V.V.Lukin. A way to Lake Vostok studies is now open||5|
13 февраля 2012 г.
A WAY TO LAKE VOSTOK STUDIES IS NOW OPEN
On February 5, 2012, surface waters of the sub-glacial lake were penetrated via deep ice borehole drilled at Russian Antarctic Vostok station. The article focuses on the main stages of studies started back in 1995, technical parameters of the borehole, characteristics of the technique of penetration to the water layer of sub-glacial lake and most signifi cant stages in discovery and studies of Lake Vostok. Main trends of future studies of Lake Vostok and their signifi cance for the scientifi c community are considred.
Keywords: Antarctic research station Vostok, sub-glacial Lake Vostok, deep-water ice borehole, water layer penetration techniques, scientifi c trends of future studies of the sub-glacial lake Vostok.
| ||S.M.Sakerin, D.G.Chernov, D.M.Kabanov, V.S.Kozlov, M.V.Panchenko, V.V.Polkin, V.F.Radionov. Preliminary results of studying the aerosol characteristics of the atmosphere in the region of Barentsburg, Spitsbergen ||20|
31 октября 2011 г.
S.M.SAKERIN, D.G.CHERNOV, D.M.KABANOV, V.S.KOZLOV, M.V.PANCHENKO, V.V.POLKIN, V.F.RADIONOV
PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF STUDYING THE AEROSOL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE ATMOSPHERE IN THE REGION OF BARENTSBURG, SPITSBERGEN
The expedition studies of characteristics of the atmospheric aerosol, performed in spring and summer of 2011 in the region of Barentsburg, Spitsbergen, are discussed. In the measurements, we used a portable sun photometer (12 wavelength channels in the wavelength range 0,34–2,14 mm), photoelectric particle counter, and differential aethalometer. We present the statistical characteristics of variations in the atmospheric aerosol optical depth, mass concentrations of aerosol and «black carbon», and particle number concentration. The results of the measurements are compared with data in other high-latitude regions.
Keywords: aerosol, black carbon, concentration, aerosol optical depth, Spitsbergen.
| ||V.M.Shaimardanov. Development of information resources in the field of hydrometeorology and related fields ||32|
11 января 2012 г.
DEVELOPMENT OF INFORMATION RESOURCES IN THE FIELD OF HYDROMETEOROLOGY AND RELATED FIELDS
Putting into operation at the All-Russian Research Institute of Hydrometeorological Information – World Data Centre of the high-capacity robotized library (RL) appeared to be a signifi cant step in addressing the task of data long-term storage and delivery. The RL allowed information resources to be enhanced with data accumulated on various technical media and on paper (currently more than 205.5 thousand units of storage are held by Regional Branches and Research Institutions of the Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring). Of special value are data of hydrometeorological observations in the Arctic and Antarctic, collected in the context of shelf development and more active use of the Northern Sea Route taking into account intensive melting of sea ice.
Keywords: Data of observations, sets of information, data storage, provision of data to users.
| ||A.P.Makshtas, P.V.Bogorodskiy, V.Yu.Kustov. Rapid melt of land fast-ice in Sogo bay (Tiksi gulf) during spring 2011 ||37|
18 января 2012 г.
A.P.MAKSHTAS, P.V.BOGORODSKIY, V.YU.KUSTOV
RAPID MELT OF LAND FAST-ICE IN SOGO BAY (TIKSI GULF) DURING SPRING 2011
The data of measurements of Sogo Bay land fast-ice radiation and thermodynamical properties are presented and analyzed. The thermo-metamorphic transformations into ice including fast melting of its surface layer due to radiation flux absorption are described. The observational data are completed with the results of melting ice cover evolution computation performed using the conceptual thermodynamic model.
Keywords: land fast-ice, radiation and turbulent heat fluxes, melt pond, thermodynamic model.
| ||Yu.A.Gorbunov, S.M.Losev, L.N.Dyment. Landfast ice of Severozemelsky Straits: decay, establishment and age ||48|
13 января 2012 г.
YU.A.GORBUNOV, S.M.LOSEV, L.N.DYMENT
LANDFAST ICE OF SEVEROZEMELSKY STRAITS: DECAY, ESTABLISHMENT AND AGE
The paper presents the results of analysis of multiyear materials of airborne ice reconnaissance and satellite ice information and describes peculiarities of the processes of landfast ice decay and establishment in the straits of Severnaya Zemlya Archipelago. Significant spatial and temporal (climatic) changes of the dates of these processes were revealed. Cases of significant periods of existence of multiyear landfast ice in the Red Army and Shokal’sky Straits in the second part of the last century were determined.
Keywoards: materials of airborne ice reconnaissance, the processes of land fast ice decay and establishment, signifi cant spatial and temporal (climatic) changes.
| ||A.P.Nedashkovsky, E.D.Dobrotina, A.L.Rumyantsev. Chemical composition of frost flowers on the drifting station «North Pole-35» ||60|
20 января 2012 г.
A.P.NEDASHKOVSKY, E.D.DOBROTINA, A.L.RUMYANTSEV
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF FROST FLOWERS ON THE DRIFTING STATION «NORTH POLE-35»
The study presents results of observation of frost flowers formed on the surface of young sea ice at the lead in the drifting station «North Pole-35» region (Nansen basin, April 2008). Weather conditions during generation of frost flowers are given. The salinity of frost flowers was ~ 37 psu, the salinity of ice on which they were formed was ~ 21 psu. Chemical composition of frost flowers and sea ice (concentrations of phosphates, silicates, chlorides, sulphates and bromides, and also value of the total alkalinity) was studied. No depletion of frost flowers with salts, which can precipitate during seawater freezing, was detected. It is assumed that highly concentrated brine, squeezed out on the ice surface is absorbed by the frost flowers before the mirabilite (Na2SO4×10H2O) and ikaite (CaCO3×6H2O) precipitation in the brine occurs.
Keywords: sea ice, frost flower, Arctic Ocean.
| ||B.R.Mavlyudov, L.M.Savatyugin, I.Yu.Solovyanova. Reaction of Nordenskiold land glaciers, Spitsbergen, on climate change ||67|
12 октября 2011 г.
B.R.MAVLYUDOV, L.M.SAVATYUGIN, I.YU.SOLOVYANOVA
REACTION OF NORDENSKIOLD LAND GLACIERS, SPITSBERGEN, ON CLIMATE CHANGE
Reaction of glaciers reflects average parameters of climate fluctuations. Reaction of glaciers to climate change is considered on the basis of the analysis of the fi eld and meteorological data of previous researches 1965–1989 and our own researches 2001–2010 in the western part of Spitsbergen. For an estimation of glaciers changes in time topographical maps 1936, NPI aerial photographs 1990 and field measurements on glaciers have been used. The analysis of glaciers dynamics of Nordenskiold Land has shown that they react enough sensitively to climate changes. It has noted been, that glaciers within 20 centuries had negative mass balance and continuously degraded. Thus most intensively they retreated within last decades. However, approximately from 2003 the situation has somewhat changed and also degradation of glaciers was a little slowed down. Thus in the lower parts of glaciers intensity of ice melting practically has not changed, and in the upper parts of glaciers ice melting was cut by half and more. This phenomenon is accompanied by occurring everywhere downturn of equilibrium line altitude of glaciers which now has returned to a level of 1980th. All this testifi es to the outlined tendency to climate cooling that proves by results of some researches in other parts of our planet.
Keywords: Spitsbergen, glaciers, climate change, equilibrium line altitude, glaciers mass balance.
| ||S.V.Klyachkin, R.I.May. Forecast model of iceberg drift ||78|
1 февраля 2012 г.
FORECAST MODEL OF ICEBERG DRIFT
In the paper the numerical model of iceberg drift is described. The forecast model contains the fullest setting of operating forces, including influence on an iceberg of sea ice, waves and bottom friction. Results of test calculations of iceberg drift are showed and discussed. Authors formulate necessary further steps for creation and validations of forecast model of iceberg drift.
Keywords: numerical model, iceberg drift.
| ||L.A.Timokhov, E.A.Chernyavskaya, E.G.Nikiforov, I.V.Polyakov, V.Yu.Karpiy. Statistical model of interannual variability of the Аrctic ocean surface lyaer salinity in winter ||89|
16 января 2012 г.
L.A.TIMOKHOV, E.A.CHERNYAVSKAYA, E.G.NIKIFOROV, I.V.POLYAKOV, V.YU.KARPIY
STATISTICAL MODEL OF INTERANNUAL VARIABILITY OF THE ARCTIC OCEAN SURFACE LYAER SALINITY IN WINTER
The study is devoted to development of a statistical model of variability of the Arctic Ocean winter salinity in the 5–50 m layer. The model is based on equations of multiple correlations for the time series (principal components, PC) associated with the fi rst fi ve leading modes of the Empirical Orthogonal Function (EOF) analysis applied to the salinity fi elds. The structure of the multiple correlation equations is discussed and contribution of atmospheric factors, hydrological processes and pre-history of spatial distribution of salinity is evaluated. The statistical model was tested using temporal interpolation (prediction of the PCs) and two-year forecasts were made. Comparision of observed salinity fi elds with the ones reconstructed using fi ve leading PCs precomputed for 1955 and 1977 and prognostic PCs for 1995 demonstrated reasonably good performance of the statistical model for the reconstruction (temporal interpolation) and for the prediction of Arctic Ocean winter salinity for the 5–50 m layer.
Keywords: Arctic Ocean, the surface layer salinity, empirical orthogonal functions, principle components, correlation analysis, statistical model, temporal extrapolation, the salinity field confi guration forecast.
| ||V.G.Smirnov. Satellite monitoring of the dangerous ice features in the regions of the offshore oil and gas deposits exploration and production ||103|
3 февраля 2012 г.
SATELLITE MONITORING OF THE DANGEROUS ICE FEATURES IN THE REGIONS OF THE OFFSHORE OIL AND GAS DEPOSITS EXPLORATION AND PRODUCTION
Satellite monitoring of potentially Dangerous Ice Features (DIF) is essential for ensuring safety and effi ciency of Arctic offshore operations, especially in exploration and production projects conducted by oil and gas industry. Timely detection of ice features which could potentially upset activities is important for proper risk evaluation and planning ice management operations. The best combination of satellite data at the various stages of monitoring, starting from background monitoring using the passive microwave data and data of the optical spectral range with the subsequent use of high spatial resolution radar images is proposed. The capabilities of satellites to detect icebergs as a main threat for offshore installations are analyzed. Discussion on the combined use of satellite information and models of the sea ice cover dynamic is provided. The key requirements to the DIF monitoring system to ensure effective protection of Arctic offshore installations are formulated.
Keywords: satellite monitoring, satellite radar, dangerous ice features, iceberg detection, sea ice cover, offshore installations.
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