№ 2 (76) 2007Аннотация
Статьи, включенные в настоящий сборник, основаны на докладах, представленных на конференции «Россия в Антарктике».
| || Предисловие||5|
| ||И.И.Мохов, А.А.Карпенко. Моделирование потепления в районе Антарктического полуострова (.pdf)||7|
| ||А.Ю.Артамонов, И.А.Бучнев, И.А.Репина. Взаимодействие атмосферы с подстилающей поверхностью в летний период в зоне антарктической конвергенции (.pdf)||14|
| ||О.В.Соколов, Л.И.Мезенцева. Климатические тренды параметров общей циркуляции атмосферы в Южном полушарии во второй половине XX века (.pdf)||24|
| ||Н.Н.Антипов, А.В.Клепиков. Особенности океанографического режима залива Прюдс по данным экспедиций ААНИИ 1997–2007 гг (.pdf)||36|
| ||Ю.Д.Реснянский, А.А.Зеленько, Б.С.Струков. Крупномасштабная циркуляция Южного океана по данным численных экспериментов в лагранжевом представлении (.pdf)||49|
| ||В.Я.Липенков, Е.В.Полякова, П.Дюваль, А.В.Преображенская. Особенности строения антарктического ледникового покрова в районе станции Восток по результатам петроструктурных исследований ледяного керна (.pdf)||68|
| ||Н.И.Васильев. Глубокое бурение антарктического ледникового покрова как метод исследования палеоклимата (.pdf)||78|
| ||С.В.Попов, В.Я.Липенков, В.В.Еналиева, А.В.Преображенская. Внутриледниковые изохронные поверхности в районе озера Восток, Восточная Антарктида (.pdf)||89|
| ||А.А.Екайкин, В.Я.Липенков, И.Н.Сократова, А.В.Преображенская. Изотопный состав снега и льда в Антарктиде: климатический сигнал и пост-депозиционный шум (.pdf)||96|
| ||С.А.Булат, И.А.Алехина, Ж.Р.Пети, В.Я.Липенков, В.В.Лукин. Оценка биогеохимического потенциала подледникового озера Восток, Восточная Антарктида, в плане поддержания микробной жизни (.pdf)||106|
| ||А.В.Неелов, И.С.Смирнов, М.В.Гаврило. Отечественным исследованиям экосистем Антарктики – 50 лет (.pdf)||113|
| ||В.Ф.Радионов, Е.Н.Русина, Е.Е.Сибир. Специфика многолетней изменчивости суммарной солнечной радиации и характеристик прозрачности атмосферы в полярных областях (.pdf)||131|
| ||В.А.Маслов, Д.М.Воробьев, Б.В.Беляцкий. Геологическое строение и эволюция массива Шо, горы Принс-Чарльз (Восточная Антарктида) (.pdf)||137|
| ||В.М.Смагин. Химический состав атмосферных выпадений в районе обсерватории Мирный (.pdf)||154|
Table of contents
| ||Preface ||5|
| ||Mokhov I.I., Karpenko A.A. Modelling of warming at the Antarctic Peninsula||7|
MOKHOV I.I., KARPENKO A.A.
MODELLING OF WARMING AT THE ANTARCTIC PENINSULA
Analysis of the ability of global climatic models to reproduce temperature variations for the Antarctic Peninsula region in the Southern Hemisphere and for other regions with the largest warming trends (in Siberia and Alaska in the Northern Hemisphere) was performed in comparison with observations and reanalyses data. Assessment of relative contribution of natural and anthropogenic factors was made.
| ||A.Yu.Artamonov, I.A.Buchnev, I.A.Repina. Air-surface interaction in antarctic convergence zone during summer period||14|
ARTAMONOV A.YU., BUCHNEV I.A., REPINA I.A.
AIR-SURFACE INTERACTION IN ANTARCTIC CONVERGENCE ZONE DURING SUMMER PERIOD
The results of atmospheric turbulence eddy-correlation measurements at Bellingshausen station during summer period 2002 and 2003 are considered. The characteristics of energy exchange between the atmosphere and the underlying surface are investigated. We get the values of exchange coefficients and Monin-Obukhov theory coefficiens as well as roughness parameter. The dependence of these coefficients on meteorological conditions as well as atmospheric stability is researched. The work was supported by RFBR (grant № 05-05-64235) and by Russian President's grant for main scientific school support (grant 1636.2003.5).
| ||O.W.Cokolov, L.I.Mezenceva. Climatic trends of general atmospheric circulation parameters in southern hemisphere in second half of the 20th century||24|
CLIMATIC TRENDS OF GENERAL ATMOSPHERIC CIRCULATION PARAMETERS IN SOUTHERN HEMISPHERE IN SECOND HALF OF THE 20TH CENTURY
By means of trend analysis, the shifts of time series of some indexes of general atmospheric circulation in the second half of the 20th century were found. Average monthly, seasonal and annual data of Blinova's index and cyclonic activity index were investigated, which were calculated for southern hemisphere, and Katz's index and block index for Pacific area of the southern hemisphere. It was found that in the second half of the 20th century zonal circulation was increasing in the middle troposphere, and large scale turbulence was changing in the lower troposphere: decreasing in subtropical and middle latitudes and increasing in sub Antarctic zone.
| ||N.N.Antipov, A.V.Klepikov. Oceanographic conditions in the Prydz Bay area from the AARI cruises in 1997–2007||36|
OCEANOGRAPHIC CONDITIONS IN THE PRYDZ BAY AREA FROM THE AARI CRUISES IN 1997–2007
Main objective of the oceanographic studies during last Russian Antarctic Expeditions was to investigate the structure of the Antarctic Slope Front and water masses in the Prydz Bay. During the last four years the processes at the continental slope were investigated in the region to the west of Prydz Bay. Data obtained show Ice Shelf Water (ISW) with temperature below see surface freezing temperature (~ –1,9° C) occupied 100–700 m thick bottom layer near the Amery Ice Shelf front. This water goes to the north along western border of Amery Depression and then flows down the continental slope in the region to the west of Prydz Channel (~ 72° E). Data demonstrate that Low Salinity Shelf Water (LSSW) is typical for the Prydz Bay. However, High Salinity Shelf Water (HSSW) which is important for bottom water formation was found at section 66° E in January 2005. The origin of this HSSW is not determined. Descending water in the region to the west of Prydz Channel results in deep water ventilation and bottom water formation. Prydz Bay Bottom Water with temperatures from –0,3 to –1,9° C and salinities 34,54–34,62 ‰ is found in the region between 64° and 72° E.
| ||Yu.D.Resnyansky, A.A.Zelenko, B.S.Strukov. Large scale circulation of the South Ocean on evidence derived from numerical experiments in Lagrangian representation||49|
YU.D.RESNYANSKY, A.A.ZELENKO, B.S.STRUKOV
LARGE SCALE CIRCULATION OF THE SOUTH OCEAN ON EVIDENCE DERIVED FROM NUMERICAL EXPERIMENTS IN LAGRANGIAN REPRESENTATION
The trajectories of liquid particles with different starting coordinates within the waters under consideration were computed in order to explore the structure and probable ways of water mass spreading in the circulation system of the Southern Ocean. The time dependent field of ocean currents required for building the trajectories was determined on the basis of numerical experiments with an ocean general circulation model developed in the Hydrometcenter of Russia. From the examination of individual trajectories it was demonstrated that the transport in the Southern Ocean exhibits a rather complicated structure. The transport patterns are essentially three dimensional. The fluid particles during their horizontal movement undergo substantial vertical displacements entering into different circulation structures of the baroclinic ocean. It is also observed an essential dependence of the trajectories on the frequency composition of atmospheric forcing generating the ocean motions. The ensembles of liquid particle trajectories with close initial positions were also computed. From their examination it was revealed that over the temporal intervals under consideration (up to 24 years) the depths positions of liquid particles averaged over the ensembles, zp, generally increase with time for upper starting positions (zp0 = 10 m and zp0 = 100 m) and decrease for deep ones (zp0 = 1000 m). This may be considered as evidence that the chaotic transport emerging within unsteady three dimensional large scale currents in the Southern Ocean contains quite clear indications of an efficient mechanism for vertical mass redistribution – the resulting submergence of waters from upper layers and their upraise from deep layers.
| ||V.Ya.Lipenkov, E.V.Polyakova, P.Duval, A.V.Preobrazhenskaya. Internal structure of the Antarctic ice sheet in the vicinity of Vostok Station from the deep-ice core thin-section studies||68|
V.YA.LIPENKOV, E.V.POLYAKOVA, P.DUVAL, A.V.PREOBRAZHENSKAYA
INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF THE ANTARCTIC ICE SHEET IN THE VICINITY OF VOSTOK STATION FROM THE DEEP-ICE CORE THIN-SECTION STUDIES
It is shown that development of shear zones in the Antarctic ice sheet is linked with global increase of the dust concentration in the atmosphere during past glacial maxima. The ice strata forming in these periods are characterized by high impurity load, small ice-grain sizes, single-maximum c-axis orientation and low viscosity.
| ||N.I.Vasiliev. Deep drilling in Antarctic ice sheet as method of paleoclimate investigations ||78|
DEEP DRILLING IN ANTARCTIC ICE SHEET AS METHOD OF PALEOCLIMATE INVESTIGATIONS
Core drilling in ice sheets is the only mean of the sampling for studying of ice masses structure, material constitution and dynamics. Russian scientists made a substantial contribution in developing of ice drilling theory and technology. By the instrumentality of Russian equipment the large quantity boreholes has been drilled in Arctic and Antarctic glaciers letting many investigations in glaciology, paleoclimatology, biology and other fields. Due to our breakthroughs Russia became one of the leaders in the in the domain of deep ice drilling. The high-performance «off-the-shelf» technology is reliable and quite stable what was confirmed by drilling of the deepest 5G-1 bore-hole at Vostok station in Antarctica.
| ||S.V.Popov, V.Ya.Lipenkov, V.V.Enalieva., A.V.Preobrazhenskaya. Internal isochronous layers in the ice sheet above Lake Vostok, East Antarcica||89|
S.V.POPOV, V.YA.LIPENKOV, V.V.ENALIEVA., A.V.PREOBRAZHENSKAYA
INTERNAL ISOCHRONOUS LAYERS IN THE ICE SHEET ABOVE LAKE VOSTOK, EAST ANTARCICA
Radio-echo sounding (RES) data collected by Polar Marine Geological Research Expedition in 1998–2005 are used to investigate internal structure of the Antarctic ice sheet over the vast area of subglacial Lake Vostok. Using RES imageries we trace internal layers (isochrones) and extrapolate the Vostok ice-core time-scale to the northern part of the lake. The depths of the dated layers are found in agreement with independent information from ice-flow modeling.
| ||A.A.Ekaykin, V.Ya.Lipenkov, I.N.Sokratova, A.V.Preobrazhenskaya. Isotopic composition of snow and ice in Antarctica: climate signal and post-depositional noise||96|
A.A.EKAYKIN, V.YA.LIPENKOV, I.N.SOKRATOVA, A.V.PREOBRAZHENSKAYA
ISOTOPIC COMPOSITION OF SNOW AND ICE IN ANTARCTICA: CLIMATE SIGNAL AND POST-DEPOSITIONAL NOISE
A short review of the spatial and temporal relationships between snow isotopic composition and air temperature in Antarctica is given for different scales. It is shown that in all cases these two parameters are closely related, but with considerably varying slope. The influence of post-depositional processes altering the initial isotopic composition of precipitation after their deposition in snow thickness is considered as well. The conclusion is made that the mentioned processes may change or weaken the isotopetemperature gradient, which may affect the paleo-temperature interpretation of deep ice core isotopic records.
| ||S.A.Bulat, I.A.Alekhina, J-R.Petit, V.Ya.Lipenkov, V.V.Lukin. Biogeochemical assessment of life potential of subglacial lake Vostok, East Antarctica||106|
S.A.BULAT, I.A.ALEKHINA, J-R.PETIT, V.YA.LIPENKOV, V.V.LUKIN
BIOGEOCHEMICAL ASSESSMENT OF LIFE POTENTIAL OF SUBGLACIAL LAKE VOSTOK, EAST ANTARCTICA
The objective of the study was to estimate microbial content of accretion ice originating from the water of the subglacial Lake Vostok buried beneath 4-km thick East Antarctic ice sheet with the ultimate goal to discover microbial life in this extreme icy environment. The DNA study constrained by Ancient DNA research criteria was used as a main approach. The flow cytometry was implemented for cell
counting. As a result, both approaches showed that the Lake Vostok accretion ice contains the very low unevenly distributed biomass indicating that the water body (at least upper layer close to the ice-water boundary) should also be hosting a highly sparse life. Up to now, the only accretion ice featured by presence of mica-clay sediments allowed the recovery a few bacterial phylotypes. This unexpectedly included the chemolithoautotrophic thermophile Hydrogenophilus thermoluteolus and three more unclassified phylotypes all passing numerous contaminant controls. In contrast, the deeper and cleaner accretion ice with no sediments presence and near detection limit gas content gave no reliable signals. The deep glacial ice horizons just above the lake also showed no confident DNA signals, thus, serving a life-barrier between the Lake Vostok ecosystem and surface biota for at least 15 Ma. All these findings and farther (expectations) are discussed in terms of unusual biogeochemical environment of the lake. Thus, the question «Is there life and which life forms» remains to discover. In general, the results obtained testify that the search for life in the Lake Vostok is constrained by a high chance of forwardcontamination. The subglacial Lake Vostok may be viewed as the only exceptionally clean (near-sterile) giant aquatic system on the Earth which could provide a unique test area for searching for life on icy planets and moons.
| ||A.V.Neyelov, I.S.Smirnov, M.V.Gavrilo. Native investigations of the Antarctic ecosystems – 50 years.||113|
A.V.NEYELOV, I.S.SMIRNOV, M.V.GAVRILO
NATIVE INVESTIGATIONS OF THE ANTARCTIC ECOSYSTEMS – 50 YEARS
The article is devoted to a history of the native biological researches in the Antarctic Region: in waters of the Southern Ocean, on the Antarctic Continent and on adjacent islands. The main scientific outcomes obtained for 50 years of active and heavily operations on studying the Antarctic biota are resulted: flora, fauna, microbiota, ecosystems and biological resources, protection of a unique Nature of Antarctic Region. The produced contribution of outcomes of all native operations to knowledge of Antarctic biodiversity, biology and ecology of species, arranged it, structure and functioning of marine, ground and freshwater ecosystems, avifauna is underlined. The unsolved problems and main perspective directions of fundamental and applied researches on the nearest future are marked.
| ||V.F.Radionov, E.N.Rusina, E.E.Sibir. Particularities of long-term variability of total solar radiation and atmospheric transparency characteristics in the polar areas||131|
V.F.RADIONOV, E.N.RUSINA, E.E.SIBIR
PARTICULARITIES OF LONG-TERM VARIABILITY OF TOTAL SOLAR RADIATION AND ATMOSPHERIC TRANSPARENCY CHARACTERISTICS IN THE POLAR AREAS
The results of the generalization and analysis of observation data about total radiation and total atmospheric transparency at the Russian Antarctic and Arctic stations and at the high-mountainous middle-latitude Shadzhatmaz station are presented. The atmospheric aerosol optical depth at Mirny station in Antarctica are also considered. The character of long-term, interannual and seasonal changes of these parameters is described. The statistically significant trends of total radiation annual sums for more than 50 years observation period were not found out in the both polar areas. The values of spectral aerosol attenuation of solar radiation in Antarctic are the lowest on the Earth and, in essence, characterize "initial border" of the global background aerosol turbidity of the atmosphere. Powerful volcanic eruptions render the essential influence on the aerosol turbidity parameters in the both polar areas. The duration of the periods with increased levels of atmospheric turbidity after such eruptions averages from one and a half to some years. Aerosol attenuation of solar radiation and total transparency of the Arctic atmosphere during the spring period are formed partly under influence of the anthropogenic emissions products transported from sources in moderate latitudes of Northern hemisphere. These parameters could be considered as indirect characteristics of anthropogenic loading intensity on the Arctic environment.
| ||V.A.Maslov, D.M.Vorobiev, B.V.Belyatsky. Geology and evolution of the Shaw Massif (Prince Charles Mts., E.Antarctica).||137|
V.A.MASLOV, D.M.VOROBIEV, B.V.BELYATSKY
GEOLOGY AND EVOLUTION OF THE SHAW MASSIF (PRINCE CHARLES MTS., E.ANTARCTICA)
Shaw massif is situated in the central part of the Prince Charles Mountains and represents a complex with complicated fold structure and compositions that include biotite leucogneisses, garnetbiotite gneisses and plagiogneises (Lambert gneisses); amphibole-biotite melanogneisses, garnet-biotite plagiogneisses (Shaw melanogneisses). Also, there are poorly developed garnet-sillimanite-biotite gneisses (Isabelle paragneisses) which are met in the form of xenolith bodies among the Lambert gneisses and could be the fragments of the ancient sedimentary layer. The obtained U-Pb data reflect the two main geological events 900–1100 Ma and 450–550 Ma ago corresponding to Rayner and Pan-African tectonothermal events. The Shaw Massif terrane has been affected by at least 5 deformation events and three stages of metamorphic reworking. The tectono-structure position of the Shaw Massif region could be interpreted as a younger, high-grade metamorphic region framing the Fisher Province.
| ||V.M.Smagin. Chemical composition of atmospheric fallout in the observatory Mirny region||154|
CHEMICAL COMPOSITION OF ATMOSPHERIC FALLOUT IN THE OBSERVATORY MIRNY REGION
Chemical composition monitoring of atmospheric fallout in the observatory Mirny region, Antarctica, was carried out from 1979 to 1990 in accordance with the WMO Background Air Pollution Monitoring Programme (BAPMoN). The increasing trend of sulfates and nitrates content in atmospheric fallout was noted that is corresponding to increasing of these ions in the global atmosphere. The noticeable diminishing trend of ammonium, pH, alkalinity, and ions of potassium and calcium which have mainly continental origin was observed. The diminishing trend of pH with age decreasing of ice in the bore-hole at the Mirny station was also noted.
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