№ 1 (81) 2009
| ||Предисловие ||5|
| ||Г.В.Алексеев, А.В.Пнюшков, Н.Е.Иванов, И.М.Ашик, В.Т.Соколов, П.Н.Головин, П.В.Богородский. Комплексная оценка климатических изменений в морской Арктике с использованием данных МПГ 2007/08 (.pdf)||7|
| ||З.М.Гудкович, В.П.Карклин, В.М.Смоляницкий, И.Е.Фролов. О характере и причинах изменений климата Земли (.pdf)||15|
| ||Н.Е.Иванов, А.П.Макштас, С.В.Шутилин, Р.М.Гунн . Многолетняя изменчивость характеристик климата района гидрометеорологической обсерватории Тикси (.pdf)||24|
| ||В.Ю.Бенземан. Измерение глубины слоя скачка плотности лазерным зондированием (.pdf)||42|
| ||В.А.Ульев, И.В.Москвин. Связь между спектром потоков солнечных протонов и амплитудой вариаций поглощения во время поглощения типа полярной шапки (.pdf)||52|
| ||В.Г.Дмитриев. Об одной возможности вероятностной интерпретации категорических прогнозов направления ветра на основе дистрибутивного подхода (.pdf)||59|
| ||А.В.Богородский, Г.А.Лебедев. Основные принципы построения гидроакустического мониторинга опасных ледяных образований на шельфе замерзающих морей для обеспечения безопасной эксплуатации гидротехнических сооружений (.pdf)||69|
| ||Г.А.Лебедев, В.П.Трипольников. Разработка способа и технологических приемов разрушения атмосферных наледей взрывами (.pdf)||80|
| ||В.А.Лихоманов, А.В.Чернов, Н.А.Крупина. Экспериментальная реализация метода оценки глобальных ледовых нагрузок в экспедиции «Штокман-2008» (.pdf)||85|
| ||С.П.Поляков, Б.В.Иванов, А.В.Клепиков, В.Д.Клоков, В.В.Лукин, В.Л.Мартьянов. К вопросу о строительстве снежного аэродрома для тяжелых колесных самолетов в Центральной Антарктиде, на станции Восток (.pdf)||101|
| ||Д.Ю.Большиянов, А.С.Макаров, Е.А.Морозова, М.В.Павлов, Л.М.Саватюгин. Развитие природной среды полярных областей Земли последнего тысячелетия по данным изучения донных отложений озер (.pdf)||108|
| ||Е.Д.Добротина, Ш.Б.Тешебаев. Полевой метод комплексной оценки антропогенного загрязнения почв и грунтов на территориях автономных поселений в Арктике (.pdf)||116|
| ||Н.А.Бакунов, Д.Ю.Большиянов, Л.М.Саватюгин. Особенности выноса глобального 90Sr с водосбросов больших рек Субарктики в Северный Ледовитый океан (.pdf)||126|
| ||В.А.Ульев, И.В.Москвин, М.И.Тясто, О.А.Данилова. Риометрический метод определения жесткости геомагнитного обрезания спектра потока солнечных протонов на авроральных широтах (.pdf)||132|
| ||Г.В.Казко. О моделировании циркуляции подледникового озера Восток (Центральная Антарктида) (.pdf)||138|
| ||А.Н.Мартинчик, В.Н.Шеповальников, Е.В.Пескова, В.А.Оношко, А.В.Домашенко, Е.Н.Лисенкова, В.И.Асауленко. Содержание тяжелых металлов в продуктах питания и плазме крови населения Приуральского района (.pdf)||146|
| ||М.В.Дорожкина, Л.М.Саватюгин. Имена сотрудников ААНИИ на географических картах. Александр Иванович Гаудис (.pdf)||153|
| ||Г.А.Лебедев Виталий Васильевич Богородский (1919–1986) (.pdf)||156|
Table of contents
| || Preface||5|
| ||G.V.Alekseev, A.V.Pnuyshkov, N.E.Ivanov, I.M.Ashik, V.T.Sokolov, P.N.Golovin, P.V.Bogorodsky Assessment of the climatic changes in the marine Arctic with IPY 2007/2008 data ||7|
It is presented the assessment of the interannual and decadal changes of the Arctic climate for XX onset of XXI centuries. Changes in the surface air temperature, in the Arctic Ocean and sea ice cover are considered. National and international data sets including ones from IPY 2007/08 were used.
Key words: Climate change, Arctic, Arctic Ocean, IPY 2007/08.
| ||Z.M.Gudkovich, V.P.Karklin, V.M.Smolyanitsky, I.E.Frolov. On the character and causes of the Earth’s climate changes ||15|
Typical peculiarities of climate changes of the Arctic and some other Earth’s regions with scales ranging from decades to centuries are considered. Data of observations allowed revealing a polycyclic character of climatic changes that have occurred from the end of the 19th to the beginning of the 21st centuries. The 60-year cycles to which alternation of warm and cold epochs is related, had the largest amplitude in the Arctic. Similar cycles were also revealed in the other regions of the planet. The amplitudes of such oscillations and their contribution to the total climate variability decrease with latitude and are different in different regions. Such oscillations occur at the background of longer changes, which are usually expressed by linear trends. There is ground to believe that they manifest a cycle with duration of about 200 years. Its influence creates inter-epochal differences in the character of climatic changes. Their direct cause is displacement of the zonal transport belt in the atmosphere of the northern hemisphere from high to temperate latitudes. This is in agreement with climatic variations of the state of the northern polar vortex. Their possible cause is changes of full energy coming to the Earth from the Sun including solar activity energy. On the basis of reconstructed changes of this energy made by scientists and the actual and reconstructed data on the air temperature in the Arctic and in the northern hemisphere, it is shown that the climatic changes at the scales under consideration are created by natural causes.
Keywords: Climate changes, polycyclic character, polar vortex, zonal transport belt in the atmosphere, Solar Activity, Total Solar Irradiance, natural causes
| ||N.E.Ivanov, A.P.Makshtas, S.V.Shutilin, R.M.Gun Long-term variability of climate characteristics in the area of Tiksi Hydrometeorological observatory||24|
The description of the electronic archive of all available data of standard meteorological observations at polar station Tiksi since August 1932 until December 2007, created in the Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute and Tiksi Branch of Yakutian Administration of Hydrometeorological Service, is presented. The sub-range approach to analysis of climate variability is substantiated. The statistical estimates in ranges of interannual variability, annual course, synoptic scale variability and diurnal course are shown. The assumption about influence of synoptic systems on long-term air temperature trends is stated. The consistency of air temperature and total cloudiness trends during summer and winter seasons is revealed.
Keywords: Tiksi hydrometeorological observatory, electronic archive, climate variability, ranges of variability, air temperature and humidity, atmospheric pressure, wind speed, cloudiness.
| ||V.Yu.Benzeman. Measuring the depth of density maximal gradients layer by lidar sensing data ||42|
The paper describes the experiments on laser sounding of the water upper layer in the Arctic seas in August-September, 1988–1989, using the air-borne lidar device. The experiments are based on verifying the idea of I.Ye.Frolov and the author of the present paper on the possibility to register the depth of density maximal gradients layer using the laser sounding from board the air-plane.
Key words: density maximal gradient layer, laser sounding
| ||V.A.Ulyev, I.V.Moskvin. On connection between solar proton spectrum and amplitudes of absorption variations during polar cap absorption ||52|
Experimental variations of absorption on the Dickson station are considered during some PCA events which are caused by solar proton fluxes of a various spectrum from very soft to very rigid. During all PCA absorption recovery at noon, i.e. effect of midday recovery (MDR), and absorption recovery at night, i.e. effect day-night variation (DNV) are observed. Amplitudes of recoveries of absorption during MDR and DNV are compared with proton spectra. The following tendency is established: the more softly the spectrum, the more amplitude MDR and less amplitude DMV.
Computational modelling experiments are made. Calculations have confirmed the revealed experimental dependence of amplitude MDR and DNV from proton spectrum. The physical explanation of this dependence is presented. Formulas of calculation of a proton spectrum from amplitude MDR and DNV are received. The revealed connections between a solar proton spectrum and amplitude MDR and DNV allow to use variations of absorption during PCA for an estimation of a solar proton spectrum in interplanetary space.
Keywords: PCA, a spectrum of solar protons, amplitudes of midday recovery and day-night variation effects.
| ||V.G.Dmitriev. About the possibility of categorical wind direction forecast probabilistic representation and estimation based on the distribution-oriented approach||59|
The paper is concerned with theoretical base and practical results of categorical wind direction forecast probabilistic representation and estimation. The estimation method based on the distribution-oriented approach and can be applied to individual forecasts as well as to forecast in general. Explicit formula for probabilistic density of real data observed when forecast is given is proposed. It based on Von Mises distribution with some modifications. It was found that distributions of real wind directions in some cases are multimodal. All calculations were made with real forecast and observed data.
Key words: categorical forecast, probabilistic representation, wind direction, distribution-oriented approach.
| ||A.V.Bogorodsky, G.A.Lebedev. Basic principles of building-up the system of hydroacoustic monitoring of the dangerous ice formation at the shelf of freezing seas for the ensuring of the safe operation of the hydraulic facilities ||69|
There has been conducted the analysis of existing hydroacoustic means (HAM), that can be used for detection and assessment of the morphometric features of the dangerous ice formations (DIF) such, as icebergs, grounded hummocks, ice hummocks, the interaction of which with the hydraulic facilities can cause damage and destruction of the latter. There has been demonstrated that for the shallow-water areas of the shelf zone with the help of installation of HAM directly at the hydraulic facilities, the distance of DIF detection and assessment of their underwater sections is limited to 2.5-3.0 km, that does not provide the required safety zone (within a radius of not less than 100 km).
For the DIF monitoring within the safety zone there has been identified the structure of usage of HAM, included in the system of hydroacoustic channel of receiving of information about DIF, that includes: the boundary system of early (more then 100 km) detection of DIF and system of HAM, installed at the independent uninhabited submarine carriers.
Key words: the system of hydroacoustic, the ice formation, monitoring, the hydraulic facilities, the sofety, the system of information.
| ||G.A.Lebedev, V.P.Tripolnikov. Development of the mode and technological methods of destruction of the atmospheric icing with explosions ||80|
There are presented the results of development of the new mode of de-icing of the engineering structures using the explosion of the fuel and air mixture (FAM) and with observance of rules of the safe application of the technique offered. The physical and technological methods are reviewed. There is given the example of estimate of the required density of distribution of the ignitor charges and their mass as well as the required mass of fuel, in case of its complete burnout in the air, provided the stoichiometric concentration in the FAM charge cloud is preserved, for welded structure de-icing.
Key words: the mode, the technological metods, the destruction, the atmospheric icing, the explosion, the fuel and air mixture.
| ||V.A.Likhomanov, A.V.Chernov, N.A.Krupina. Experimental implementation of the method of global ice loads’ estimation during the expedition «Shtokman-2008»||85|
The article contains detailed description of methods and the used equipment for full-scale experiments for estimation of global ice loads on ship. According to the commission of Shtokman Development AG AARI together with representatives of Oceanology Research Institute conducted the expedition «Shtokman-2008» in May-June, 2008 on board of the icebreaker «Kapitan Nikolaev» in the North-East part of the Barents Sea. The target was to define global ice load applied to the ship by ice formations, namely, level ice, hummocks, ridges and bergy bits. To define forces applied to the ship it was equipped with 2 measuring systems based on various physical principles. The first system allowed to fix changes of kinematic parameters of the ship movement during interaction. The second system allows to measure general bending of the ship in the vertical surface with a help of tensometry. Because of confidential policy, qualitative results of the research only are presented in the article, without any quantitative parameters.
Key words: global ice load, tensometry measurement system, inertial measurement system, quations of ship motion, bergy bit, ridge
| ||S.P.Poliakov, B.V.Ivanov, A.V.Klepikov, V.D.Klokov, V.V.Lukin, V.L.Mart’yanov. On the building of snow runway for the heavy wheeled aircrafts at Vostok station, Central Antarctica ||101|
Experimental studies were conducted within the framework of the governmental program of construction of the snow air strip at the station Vostok, suitable for exploitation of heavy wheeled airplanes, e.g. Il’ushin 76-TD.
Vostok is situated in the Central Antarctic, in the area of dry snow. The maximum snow surface temperature does not exceed –25оC. The cold snow is slightly affected by the artificial compression and this is the main problem during the construction.
The main goal of this work is to study the physical properties of snow cover of the Vostok station air strip under the different mechanical impacts. Mechanical impacts on the snow cover were performed with the help of stamp tests in the range of pressures of 0,05–1,5 MPa. The changes of snow cover strength, hardness, density, texture and structure were registered, as well as plastic deformation and affecting depth of the snow cover were measured.
A number of interesting features, for instance the change of snow cover strength in time after mechanical impact was found. Three days after the test the snow cover strength increased 1,5 times comparing to the values observed 3 hours after the tests.
As result of experiments the values of optimal pressure on the runway, suitable for Il’ushin 76-TD landing were determined. The changes of the snow cover structure after different mechanical tests were found. The obtained field data will be used for development of theoretical model of the cold snow cover compression.
Key words: snow runway, plastic deformation, mechanical impacts, stamp tests, snow density.
| ||D.Yu.Bolshiyanov, A.S.Makarov, E.A.Morozova, M.V.Pavlov, L.M.Savatyugin. Polar regions environment during last millenium on the base of lake sediments investigations ||108|
The article gives the review of researches of lakes and lake sediments in polar areas, carried out by the Russian experts. It also illustrates the role of lake sediments within the Holocene paleoclimate research; the main methods of research of lake sediments, varvometric, geochemical, spore and pollen method, etc. According to the data obtained from research of the Arctic area lake sediments, the time of the Little Ice Age expansion in the Russian Arctic was determinated. The results of research of the lakes in Banger oasis (East Antarctica) allowed to reconstruct the floating Line dynamics as result of ocean transgression 2000 years ago, which took place along meridian of 100° E.
Key words: lake sediments, methods of investigations, Arctic, Antarctica, climate and sea level fluctuations, Late Holocene.
| ||E.D.Dobrotina, Sh.B.Theshebaev. Field method of the complex estimation of antropogenous pollution of the soils in areas of autonomous settlements in the Arctic ||116|
The technique is developed for carrying out a complex estimation of anthropogenic pollution of Arctic soils in the conditions approached to field. The level of anthropogenic loading is estimated by the organic substances contain in soil, determined on set of tests with the diazotized sulphanilic acid and with the ninhydrin solution.
Key words: anthropogenic loading, azocoupling, ninhydrin reaction.
| ||N.A.Bakunov, D.Yu.Bolshiyanov, L.M.Savatyugin. Peculiarities of global 90Sr runoff from Watersheads of Subarctic big Rivers to the Arctic Ocean ||126|
Estimations of sup>90Sr runoff from soils of the Russian North watersheads during the period of 1961 1990 have been made. sup>90Sr supply to rivers lowered from the west to the east with increasing of climate severity. sup>90Sr supply to Severnaya Dvina River and to Pechora River was 0,6% of reserves during one year and 0,3% in a year for Yenisey River and Lena River.
Key words: sup>90Sr, runoff, watersheads of Severnaya Dvina River, Pechora River, Yenisey River, Lena River
| ||V.A.Ulyev, I.V.Moskvin, M.I.Tyasto, O.A.Danilova. Riometer method of calculation of geomagnetic cutoff rigidity of spec ||132|
A new method (riometer method) of calculation of geomagnetic cutoff rigidity of spectrum of solar protons penetrating on auroral latitudes after powerful solar flashes is offered. The method is based on using the riometer data during polar cap absorption (PCA) with midday recovery (MDR) effect, fluxes of solar protons causing PCA and models of calculation of increase of short radio wave absorption in the bottom ionosphere during PCA.
Calculations of absorption are spent during several PCA with MDR for station Dickson. Comparison of calculated and observable values of absorption, and also statistical analysis of calculated results show that application of geomagnetic rigidity values received by the riometer method, gives more exact values of absorption, than using the geomagnetic rigidity values received on experimental data (satellite measurements) or by trajectory calculations. Factors of recalculation of the satellite and trajectory geomagnetic rigidity values for computation of ionization rate, electron concentration and absorption during PCA are calculated.
Keywords: geomagnetic rigidity, solar protons fluxes, riometer measurements, computational model of PCA.
| ||G.V.Kazko. On the modelling of subglacial lake Vostok circulation (Сentral Antarctica)||138|
Different approaches to a problem of subglacial lake Vostok circulation modelling and main goals of the study are discussed. The hydrodynamical non-hydrostatic water circulation model based on vorticity vectorial potential variables is developed to solve the problem. Some results of convective circulation modelling in rectangular basin to illustrate the model efficiency are presented.
Keywords: Antarctica, subglacial lake, circulation, modelling.
| ||A.N.Martinchik, V.N.Shepovalnikov, E.V.Peskova, V.A.Onoshko, A.V.Domashenko, E.N.Lisenkova, V.I.Asaulenko. Contents of heavy metals in foods and blood serum of people living in near urals area of yamal-nenets autonomous okrug ||146|
The heavy metal contents in local foods (wild berries mushrooms and herbs, fish) and in whole daily food items of institutionalized groups of people in three settlements of Yamal-Nenets Autonomous Okrug were studied. Content of cadmium in foods were lower than maximum allowable levels. Contents of nickel and chromium in fish of local river Sob near settlement Harp were ten times higher than in fish catched in river Schuchja nerar settlement Beloyarsk. High levels of nickel and chromium were detected in various wild berries, mushrooms and herbs got out in forest near Harp. Level of cadmium in blood serum of volunteers living in Beloyarsk was higher than level in serum of Aksarka”s and Harps residents. In the same time the serum levels of nickel and chromium were higher in Harps residents. There are possibilities of real contamination of local food items in area of settlement Harp and heavy metals loading on people living in this area.
| ||L.M.Savatyugin, M.V.Dorozhkina. Names of AARI scientists on geographical maps. Alexander Ivanovich Gaudis ||153|
| ||G.A.Lebedev. Vitalii Vasil’evich Bogorodsky (1919–1986)||156|
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