ПРОБЛЕМЫ АРКТИКИ И АНТАРКТИКИ
Том 64 №4
| ||В.А. Бородкин, С.М. Ковалев, А.И. Шушлебин. Пространственная неоднородность строения ровного припайного льда в районе научно-исследовательского стационара «Ледовая база “Мыс Баранова”» (.pdf)||351|
Гидрология суши и гидрохимия
| ||В.А. Брызгало, М.В. Третьяков, Е.В. Румянцева, Е.Н. Шестакова, О.В. Муждаба. Реки опорных зон Российской Арктики и их современное состояние (.pdf)||365|
| ||Е.С. Колпакова. Хлорфенольные соединения в пресноводных озерах субарктических регионов (.pdf)||380|
Геоморфология и эволюционная география
| ||Т.В. Сапелко, Е.С. Носевич, М.А. Кулькова, А.И. Мурашкин, Е.М. Колпаков. Палеоэкологическая характеристика побережья Баренцева моря в позднем голоцене на примере полуострова Средний (.pdf)||391|
| ||Н.В. Кубышкин, И.В. Бузин, Н.В. Головин, Ю.П. Гудошников, Г.А. Замарин, А.А. Скутин. Ледотехнические аспекты создания объектов транспортной инфраструктуры и разведочного бурения в Арктике (.pdf)||407|
Геология и геофизика
| ||Л.В. Цибизов, Е.И. Есин, А.В. Григоревская, К.А. Сосновцев. Магнитометрия и георадиолокация в применении к картированию полигонально-жильных льдов едомного комплекса (.pdf)||427|
| ||С.Н. Зацепа, А.А. Ивченко, В.В. Солбаков, В.В. Становой. Метод моделирования последствий сверхпродолжительных аварий
на объектах нефтедобычи в Арктическом регионе (.pdf)||439|
| ||В.В. Лукин. Отечественной антарктической станции Полюс недоступности — 60 лет (.pdf)||455|
Table of contents
| ||V.A. Borodkin, S.M. Kovalev, A.I. Shushlebin. Spatial heterogeneity in the structure of fast ice level in the area of the research station “Ice base Cape of Baranov”.||351|
Keywords: fast ice, salinity, temperature, texture, thermic metamorphism.
Two ice coring transects in the Shokalsky Strait were made in order to analyze a spatialheterogeneity in the structure of fast ice in the area of the research station “Ice base Cape of Baranov”. The first transect was 16 km long made off the shore of Bolshevik Island in a western direction across the Shokalsky Strait. The second transect was made along the eastern shore of the Shokalsky Strait. Structural analysis of the recovered sea ice cores shows that fast ice in the Shokalsky Strait features a complicated multilayer structure formed of congelation ice, congelation-frazil ice, frazil slush, and infiltration formations.Various conditions of ice formation form the ices of various genetic types. In terms of ice thickness, a sequence of layer occurrence and type, all level fast ice of the Shokalsky Strait in the area of the station can be divided into three main groups. The group I, being the most common one, is the ice group formed directly in the strait, approximately outside the 100 m isobath. Its structure comprises three to four layers. The average ice thickness measured in the end of May was 132 cm. A distinctive feature of the ice belonging to (or associated with) this group is the presence of a distinct lamination in the texture pattern for almost all recovered ice cores. The ice of this group also has an increased salinity compared to the ice of other groups, especially in the upper layers.
The ice of the group II prevails, mainly in closed bays or gulfs.This group ice forms in dynamically stable conditions. Formation of fast ice in these regions of the study area began some earlier than in other locations, and the thickness of this ice reached 160 cm or more.
The ice of the group III is transitional from the group II to the group I. Its distinctive feature is the presence of a thick layer of rafting ice. The main place of its formation is the boundary of separation of fast ice with drifting ice or open water.
In the Shokalsky Strait, in the bays and in the coastal regions, there was observed the spatial ordering of the columnar ice crystals. This feature was especially pronounced in level fast ice from the open part of the strait.
For citation: BorodkinV.A., Kovalev S.M., Shushlebin A.I. Spatial heterogeneity in the structure fast ice of level in the area of the research station “Ice base Cape of Baranov”. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64, 4: 351–364. [In Russian].
Hydrology of land and hydrochemistry
| ||V.A. Bryzgalo, M.V. Tretiakov, E.V. Rumiantseva, E.N. Shestakova, O.V. Muzhdaba. Rivers in the Russian Arctic support zones and their current status||365|
Keywords: Arctic zone, development of the Arctic, ecosystem, hydrochemical indicators, pollution degree, rivers, Russia, water resources.
Implementation of projects to create support zones is closely linked to the optimization of the system of state control over the environmental situation in the Russian Arctic. Previous studies have shown that zones of ecological disadvantage, as well as impact areas, have formed on these territories. In this regard, the urgency of developing and adapting scientific methods for monitoring the status and methods of regulating the quality of freshwater ecosystems is growing. Recent studies show that the reasons for changing the quality of freshwater ecosystems are the introduction of the substances with anthropogenic origin into the water mass and the modification of chemical components of the natural water environment, changes in its physical characteristics and other properties of the freshwater ecosystem.
The aim of this work is to assess the hydrological and environmental state of the river ecosystems in the support zones of the Russian Arctic. The analysis of the long-term regime hydrochemical information (1990–2010) of the state observation network of the Roshydromet was carried out using methods of complex indicators calculating and risk of anthropogenic impact assessments.
Variability of the water pollution degreeis analyzed. Priority and critical hydrochemical indicators are identified. It is shown that the role of the anthropogenic component is currently determinative in the transformation of their hydrochemical regime for the river ecosystems of the support zones under study. Their hydrochemical regime is characterized by high spatial, interannual and intra-annual variability of the component composition of the aquatic environment; formation of a higher “anthropogenically-altered natural background”; periodic accumulation in the water environment of priority pollutants to concentrations of tens of hundreds of times the maximum permissible concentrations, an increase in the frequency of cases of high and extreme high pollution.
For citation: Bryzgalo V.A., Tretiakov M.V. , Rumiantseva E.V. , Shestakova E.N., Muzhdaba O.V. Rivers in the Russian Arctic support zones and their current status. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64, 4: 365–379. [In Russian].
| ||E.S. Kolpakova. Chlorophenol compounds in freshwater lakes of subarctic regions||380|
Keywords: bottom sediments, chlorinated phenols, gas chromatography, pentachlorophenol, subarctic lake.
Chlorophenol compounds, representing a group of chlorinated phenols and their derivatives, are ionic compounds with different degree of hydrophobicity, lipophilicity and acidity. As potential anthropogenic sources of pollution of ecosystems by chlorophenol compounds is the regional atmospheric transport of these compounds from the territories of border regions. At the same time, the sources of the diversity of chlorophenol compounds are the natural processes of enzymatic biosynthesis in the components of the environment. These compounds are especially dangerous for the Arctic and subarctic ecosystems, since the conditions of the cold climate contribute to their longterm preservation, which increases their negative impact on living organisms.
The research area includes subarctic small thermokarst lakes located in the central part of Vaigach Island and in Bolshezemelskaya tundra.
The isolation of chlorophenol compounds from bottom sediment samples was carried out by accelerated liquid flow-through extraction with a hot mixture of organic solvents with extraction of easily and hardly extractable chlorophenol compounds and subsequent analysis on a gas chromatograph with an electron-capture detector. The total content of chlorophenol compounds was determined by summing their concentrations in the easily and hardly extractable fractions.
The bottom sediments of the investigated lakes were characterized by a relatively high content of chlorophenol compounds. Toxic pentachlorophenol was found only in the sediments of lake Tundra Bolshezemelskaya. The revealed presence of chlorophenol compounds in the bottom sediments of the investigated lakes suggests their spread in the environment by atmospheric transport from abiogenic sources, as well as natural enzymatic and biochemical processes in these Arctic waters.
For citation: Kolpakova E.S.. Chlorophenol compounds in freshwater lakes of subarctic regions. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64, 4: 380–390. [In Russian].
Geomorhology and evolutionary geography
| ||T.V. Sapelko, E.S. Nosevich, M.A. Kulkova, A.I. Murashkin, E.M. Kolpakov. Paleoecological characteristics of the Barents sea coast during the late holocene by the example of Sredniy Peninsula||391|
Keywords: archeology, Barents Sea, geochemistry, Kola Peninsula, Late Holocene, palaeoecology, palynology.
We received results of complex palaeoecological research at south-west Barents Sea coast. In Periayarvi 1 settlement (Sredniy Peninsula) discovered by V. Ya. Shumkin in 1994, archeological excavations of two house-structures were performed. We sampled the sequence in the house-structure 16 date to the Early Metal Age and we studied it with archaeological, palynological, geochemical and radiocarbon methods. The sequence in the house-structure 16 settlement include sand layers in the bottom, the upper part consists of slightly decomposed peat. The radiocarbon data obtained from the charcoal sample from the fireplace in the middle of the house-structure is 2920±70 C14 BP, which correlates with result of pollen analysis. According ac to pollen data, the sequence formation started at the first half of the Subboreal period during the spread of tundra vegetation and then vegetation changed to forest tundra while the climate was getting more comfortable for humans. At the Subatlantic period tundra recovers because of temperature drop. The landscape is getting similar to the modern one. According geochemical indications main functional zones of house-structure were distinguished, and that provides necessary information about main characteristics of living conditions. The complex of methods allows to date Periayarvi 1 settlement to the Early Metal Age. In the results we made reconstruction of palaeoenvironmental conditions in the Late Holocene at the Barents Sea coast.
For citation: SapelkoT.V., NosevichE.S., Kulkova M.A., Murashkin A.I., Kolpakov E.M. Palaeoecological characteristics of the Barents sea coast during the late holocene by the example of Sredniy peninsula. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64, 4: 391–406. [In Russian].
| ||N.V. Kubyshkin, I.V. Buzin, N.V. Golovin, Yu.P. Gudoshnikov, G.A. Zamarin, A.A. Skutin. Aspects of ice engineering for the aims of construction of the transport infrastructure and reconnaissance drilling in the Arctic||407|
Keywords: artificial ice islands, drifting ice, fast ice, ice berths, ice landing strips, ice roads, ice technology.
Starting from the mid 2000-s the increase of sustained development of the Russian Arctic is observed, in many cases the technologies using the ice cover as an infrastructure element and the ice as the construction materials are used. In the present time the different approaches of use of natural and artificial ice for applied tasks on the Arctic offshore exist. For example, the clearance of the upper surface of ice from snow and ridges is used for the purposes of the vessel unloading on the fast ice or constructing the airstrips on the drifting ice cover. In case of insufficient thickness of the level ice the latter is increased by the means of preliminary freezing (natural on the bottom side of ice and artificial by pouring the fresh or saline water on the upper surface). By constructing the artificial ice islands the ice body is made by spraying the sea water with the partial freezing of the water drops in the air and further freezing of the 2-phase elements (i.e. ice crystals in the liquid film) on the surface of the ice cover. The problem of cracks in the ice cover is solved by different means according to the proper task. When it is possible, the cracks are “healed”— i.e. are filled with the snow and ice gravel and then freezed. In case of impossibility of use of such method (for example — presence of tidal cracks or relatively high air temperature) the cracks are overlapped with the help of different covers made of different materials and of different sizes. The promising trend of ice technology is involving the reinforced or composite ice, having the increased strength, into the ice engineering practice. By unloading the cargo ships on the fast ice the ice strength is decreased locally for the purpose of easy berthing of the vessel with safekeeping the original strength of the surrounding ice for the aims of the vessel unloading. This problem is solved by creating the system of notches in the ice cover according to the vessel dimensions. The specialized hydrometeorological support on every stage of the ice engineering operation is an essential element of the ice engineering activities on the ice cover of lakes, rivers and seas.
For citation: Kubyshkin N.V., Buzin I.V., Golovin N.V., Gudoshnikov Yu.P., Zamarin G.A., Skutin A.A. Aspects of ice engineering for the aims of construction of the transport infrastructure and reconnaissance drilling in the Arctic. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64, 4: 407–426. [In Russian].
Geology and geophysics
| ||L.V. Tsibizov, E.I. Esin, A.V. Grigorevskaya, K.A. Sosnovtsev. Magnetometry and ground penetrating radar in application to mapping of polygonal wedge ice of yedoma complex||427|
Keywords: ground peneterating radar, magnetometry, polygonal wedge ice.
Paper is dedicated to geophysical mapping of polygonal wedge ice. Magnetometric and ground penetrating radar surveys were implemented on a small area of Yedoma ice complex on Kurungnakh island in Lena river delta. Such deposits are widely spread on a huge areas of Siberia and Alaska. The study was conducted near the thermoerosional gully, which propagates along the most thick ice wedges. Polygonal pattern is observable on high-resolution aerial imagery and digital elevation model - this data was used during the interpreting of obtained results. Study area (40×50 m) was covered with highresolution magnetic survey at the elevation of 2 m with 2×2 m step and with ground penetrating radar survey along profiles with 1 m distance between the profiles. Map of total magnetic field anomalies allow to determine the ice wedges of Yedoma ice complex distinctly. Difference between maximum positive (polygons centers) and negative (ice wedges) anomalies reaches 6 nT (error of the survey is 0,3 nT). Beyond that smaller ice wedges which penetrate the ice wedges of Yedoma complex are also observable in magnetic field. Basing on ground penetrating radar data an amplitude slice of at 3,5 m depth was built. Yedoma ice wedges are observable at depth of 3–4 m. Ground penetrating radar data is quite noisy due to surface inhomogeneity (puddles, knolls, etc.). Results of the surveys were compared in the light of practical application of the methods for above mentioned goal. Magnetometric method appears as more efficient than ground penetrating radar survey: it does not require a contact with the surface and more rapid, it is more sensitive as the case stands. Ground penetrating radar method may have advantages in the case of natural (magnetic storm, high-magnetized overlaying deposits) and anthropogenic (metal constructions — pipelines, ETL) noise.
For citation: Tsibizov L.V., Esin E.I., Grigorevskaya A.V., Sosnovtsev K.A. Magnetometry and ground penetrating radar in application to mapping of polygonal wedge ice of yedoma complex. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64, 4: 427–438. [In Russian].
| ||S.N. Zatsepa, A.A. Ivchenko, V.V. Solbakov, V.V. Stanovoy. A method for modeling of the consequences of super-continuous accidents on oil production objects in the Arctic region||439|
Keywords: mathematical modelling, oil spills, long-lasting oil spill accidents.
The elimination of the oil spill at the DWH (Deep-Water Horizon) well in the Gulf of Mexico took place in almost ideal hydrometeorological conditions, which did not create serious difficulties for the operation of the response forces and means.There is a problem of assessing the possible consequences of an accident of this scale in the Arctic conditions.The simulation method of a long-lasting oil spill in the ice infested region is considered. A new model for the spreading of an elementary spill (ES) is described. A total oil spill is constructed as superposition of a number of an elementary spill. Taking into account the transport of oil by drifting ice, the potential impact of spills on vulnerable areas in the sea and coasts can reach distance of hundreds and thousands of kilometers. The distribution of ES on the surface of ice-free water is limited by the lifetime, depending on the properties of oil and regional hydro-meteorological conditions and elongated by the duration of the ice capture. The paper presents examples of estimating the lifetime of an ongoing oil spill in open water conditions based on the analysis of wind conditions in the area of interest by long-term series of meteorological reanalysis. On the basis of the analysis, an efficient computational algorithm to estimate the probability of a long-lasting oil spills impact on specially protected natural areas is constructed.
For citation: Zatsepa S.N., Ivchenko A.A., Solbakov V.V., Stanovoy V.V.. A method for modeling of the consequences of super-continuous accidents on oil production objects in the Arctic region. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64, 4: 439–454. [In Russian].
Pages of history
| ||V.V. Lukin. Russian Antarctic Station Pole of Inaccessibility — 60 years old||455|
Keywords: Antarctica, sledge-tracked train, station Pole of Inaccessibility.
The history of the Antarctic station The Pole of Inaccessibility establishing and opening up in 1958 is recorded here. The aim of this station was academic study within the scope of the IGY general program 1957–1958 of Soviet scientists.
For citation: Lukin V.V. Domestic Antarctic station Polyus inaccessibility — 60 years. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64, 4: 455–458. [In Russian].
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