ПРОБЛЕМЫ АРКТИКИ И АНТАРКТИКИ
Том 64 №3
| ||А.В. Юлин, М.В. Шаратунова, Е.А. Павлова, В.В. Иванов. Сезонная и межгодовая изменчивость ледяных массивов Восточно-Сибирского моря (.pdf)||229|
| ||Ю.П. Гудошников, А.В. Нестеров, В.А. Рожков, Е.А. Скутина. Изменчивость течений Карского моря (.pdf)||241|
Физика атмосферы и гидросферы
| ||Е.Е. Сибир, В.Ф. Радионов. Вариации общего содержания озона на российских антарктических станциях. Результаты многолетних наблюдений (.pdf)||250|
| ||Г.В. Алексеев, В.Ф. Радионов, В.М. Смоляницкий, К.В. Фильчук. Результаты и перспективы исследований климата и климатического обслуживания в Арктике (.pdf)||262|
Геология и геофизика
| ||Г.В.Артеменко, В.И. Ганоцкий. Геохимические особенности дайковых пород островов архипелага Арджентайн и прилегающей части Антарктического полуострова (Западная Антарктида) (.pdf)||270|
Экология. Биоценология. Биогеография.
| ||В.Г. Дворецкий, А.Г. Дворецкий. Широтные вариации структуры сообществ и продуктивности зоопланктона в Баренцевом море (лето 2013 г.) (.pdf)||294|
| ||Н.В. Лебедева, Н.Н. Фатеев , А.Л. Никулина, О.Л. Зимина, Е.А. Гарбуль. Ртуть в компонентах экосистемы заливов Западного Шпицбергена в летний период 2017 года (.pdf)||311|
| ||С.Ю. Гагаев. Сходство и отличие биоэнергетических характеристик полихет в донных сообществах мелководных заливов Арктики и Антарктики (.pdf)||326|
| ||П.В. Коробов. Численная реализация начально-краевой задачи для нелинейных одномерных уравнений пороупругости для системы вода–лед (.pdf)||337|
Table of contents
| ||Yulin A.V., Sharatunova M.V., Pavlova E.A., Ivanov V.V. Seasonal and interannual changes of ice massifs in East Siberian sea.||229|
Keywords: climatic changes, East Siberian Sea, ice conditions, ice extent, ice massifs.
The paper considers the seasonal and interannual variability of the Novosibirsky and Ayonsky ice massifs of the East Siberian Sea, which represent the main difficulty for navigation during summer.
Analysis of ice conditions showed the tendency towards the onset of a new climatic period - “relative warming”. This is consistent with the regional quasi-periodic 30-year alternations beetween the “relatively cold” and “relatively warm” climatic periods identified in the AARI.
We have compared ice conditions of the “relatively cold” period of 1958–1987 and the “relatively warm” period of 1988–2017. Since the end of the 1980s the ice massifs began to decrease more intensively with the onset of break up some 10–20 days earlier.
In general, the drift ice area during summer has decreased by 15–20 % in the western part of the sea and by 20–30 % in eastern one. The fast decrease of close floatingice in the East Siberian Sea observed in the last decades resulted in increase of the possibilities of autonomous navigation.
The latest works containing the analysis of in conditions of the East Siberian Sea belong to the 90s of last century. In these works ice conditions of the period of the 40–80s of the 20th century were considered. During this period, the background of the ice cover extent was high. As a result, the usage of the average values of ice massifs areas calculated on all observations series (since 1946), is not informative for characterizing ice conditions during separately taken periods.
For citation: Yulin A.V., Sharatunova M.V., Pavlova E.A., Ivanov V.V. Seasonal and interannual changes of ice massifs in East Siberian sea. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64, 3: 229–240. [In Russian].
| ||Gudoshnikov Yu.P., Nesterov A.V., Rozhkov V.A., Skutina E.A. Currents variability of the Kara
Keywords: Kara Sea currents, spectral analysis of vector stochastic processes and fields, vector variance analysis.
To study the water dynamics of the Kara Sea in the prospective areas of shelf development, the instrumental measurements of currents speeds were made at 6 submerged autonomous buoy stations with about a year duration for 5 of them and about half a year duration for 1.
A spectral analysis of implementations of these measurements allowed to determine, that characteristic currents feature is a presence of annual, tidal and synoptical components of currents speeds variability. The contribution estimate of each of these components into the total process variance using the method of vector variance analysis was performed in the work.
Estimates of currents speeds show almost the same character of variability at all submerged autonomous buoy stations by all parameters. It is appearing in the numerical values of main parameters of variability, profiles shape of their vertical distribution, evolution of these profiles in the annual course and in the correlations of summary current characteristic and its nonperiodical component. At all 6 submerged autonomous buoy stations along all depths, mean currents are directed to N-NNE-NE and values of mean scalar speed of summary current and maximum at upper horizons are changing within relatively small limits of 10,5–1,5 cm/s and 65–80 cm/s correspondingly. For vertical distribution, it is typical a decrease with a depth the values of speeds and their variability when the direction of mean transfer and relative proximity to it of maximum variability direction is preserved. The annual course is well-defined and becomes apparent in increase of current speeds and their variability in case of simultaneous strengthening of vertical contrast in spring and summer. The variability of nonperiodical current at all depths and corresponding vertical contrasts are weakened in comparison with summary current and ellipses shape of standard drviation is more elongate.
For citation: Gudoshnikov Yu.P., Nesterov A.V., Rozhkov V.A., Skutina E.A. Currents variability of the Kara sea. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64, 3: 241–249. [In Russian].
Atmosphere and hydrosphere physics
| ||Sibir E.E., Radionov V.F. Total ozone variations at russian antarctic stations. Results of long-term observations.||250|
Keywords: Antarctica, ozone hole, total ozone.
The results of observations of total ozone content (TOC) at the Russian Antarctic stations Mirny (66° 34′ N, 93° 01′ E), Novolazarevskaya (70° 46′ S, 11° 50′ E) and Vostok (78° 38′ S, 106° 52′ E) from 1975 to 2017 are presented. Measurements were carried out by filters ozonemeters M-83/M-124. Throughout this period, there have been steady decreases in TOC in spring time. Early 1990s, the average TOC in September and October at Mirny decreased by 70–75 % of its average values for 1975–1980. The effect of the ozone hole and its intensity depend on ozone-depleting substance (ODS) levels, the dynamical processes and variations of temperature in the stratosphere. Considering the slow rate of decrease ODSs concentration, changes in size and depth of ozone hole have been mainly controlled by variations in temperature and dynamical processes. The destruction of the stratospheric circumpolar vortex early spring of 1988 was the reason that the spring negative anomaly of the TOC was not formed at all. A sharp increase of temperature in the stratosphere in the spring of 2002 was accompanied by an increase in the TOC. It led to reduction in the size of the “ozone hole” and even its dividing into two parts at the end of September. Since the early 2000s, there has been a tendency to return the TOC to the values observed in 1970s and to increase its interannual variability in comparison to 1990s.
For citation: Sibir E.E., Radionov V.F. Total ozone variations at russian antarctic stations. Results of long-term observations. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64, 3: 250–261. [In Russian].
| ||Alekseev G.V., Radionov V.F., Smolyanitsky V.M., Filchuk K.V. Results and prospects of the climatestudies and climate service in the Arctic.||262|
Keywords: Arctic, climate, monitoring, investigation, climate services.
Climatic studies in AARI include monitoring changes in the Arctic climate system, ascertaining their causes and predictability. The beginning was laid in the 1920s by the works of V. Yu. Wiese, who investigated the causes of the warming of the Arctic in the 1920–1930s. Monitoring continues with the organization in 1932–1934 of a network of polar stations, and the first climatic assessments were created in the 1960s. At present, climate change monitoring in the Arctic is carried out on the basis of observations on the network of hydrometeorological stations, satellite observations of sea ice, ship-based expedition observations and measurements on autonomous buoy installations in the Arctic seas and the Arctic basin. The results are presented in regular reviews of climatic and ice conditions. Recent studies have evaluated the contribution of atmospheric heat transfers in the formation of temperature changes in winter and radiation inflows in summer.A scheme for the development and enhancement of warming in the Arctic has been proposed. The tasks of climate services in the Arctic are considered on the basis of the WMO initiative on the development of climate services in the form of the Arctic Regional Climate Center – network (ArcRCC-N).
For citation: Alekseev G.V., Radionov V.F., Smolyanitsky V.M., Filchuk K.V. Results and prospects of the climatestudies and climate service in the Arctic. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64, 3: 262–269. [In Russian].
Geology and geophysics
| ||Artemenko G.V., Ganotskiy V.I. Geochemical features of dike rocks of the Argentine islands and the near area of the antarctic peninsula (Western Antarctica).||270|
Keywords: Antarctic Peninsula, Argentine Islands, dikes, Fe-Ti cumulates, multielement diagram, REE.
The block of the Antarctic Peninsula is part of a magmatic arc formed along the southwestern part of the paleo-Pacific margin of the Gondwana supercontinent. Currently, subduction processes continue only in its northwestern part — in the region of the South Shetland islands, and to the southwest of it —there is a passive segment of the continental margin, within which the Argentine islands are located. Here, subduction was completed in the late Miocene-Early Pliocene. In the geological structure of the Argentine islands archipelago, the rocks of the Upper Jurassic volcanic group (AP Volcanic Group) and intrusive batholiths of the batholiths (AP batholiths) are distinguished. In them, there are numerous dikes of basic, medium and acidic compositions. The activation of dyke magmatism on the passive margin of the Antarctic Peninsula was probably connected with subduction processes in its northwestern part.
The age sequence of dike formation in the rocks of the Antarctic Peninsula (AP) volcanic Group and intrusions of the gabbroids and granitoids of the Andean complex in the Argentine Islands and the near area of the Antarctic Peninsula is determined. The early dikes of the dacites in the volcanogenic stratum of the AP volcanic Group and the gabbrodiabases in the gabbroids of the Andean complex have a submeridional and northwestern strike. After the introduction of the granitoids of the Andean complex, dikes predominantly of the sublatitudinal and north-easterly strike are formed. The early dikes in the gabbroids of the Andean complex are Fe-Ti cumulates, and in granodiorite intrusions they are represented by aplites, probably formed from the residual magma of these intrusions. Later dikes were formed, probably due to the melting of the metasomatized mantle source at moderate depths under the influence of plumes. To their primitive (initial) melts, the composition of high-magnesian dike rocks is probably close. Products of deep mantle (plume) sources in the sample of selected samples were not detected. The dike rocks of this region according to their geochemical characteristics correspond to the mature island-arc formations of the calc-alkaline series.
For citation: Artemenko G.V., Ganotskiy V.I. Geochemical features of dike rocks of the Argentine islands and the near area of the antarctic peninsula (Western Antarctica). Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64, 3: 270–293. [In Russian].
Ecology. Biocenology. Biogeography.
| ||Dvoretsky V.G., Dvoretsky A.G. Latitudinal variations of zooplankton community structure and
productivity in the Barents sea (summer 2013).||294|
Keywords: Barents sea, biomass, stock, zooplankton.
The Barents Sea is regarded as one of the world’s most unique regions with its high summer productivity. However, there were a few studies dealing with estimation of daily secondary production in the Barents Sea. The aim of the present study was to conduct an investigation of the pelagic mesozooplankton assemblage in the Barents Sea, to calculate daily production levels of mesozooplankton and to analyze the relationship between the community structure and environmental drivers.
Structure of zooplankton communities was investigated within the main water masses of the Barents Sea in the summer 2013 (June–July). Calanus finmarchicus presented as copepodites IV–V dominated in terms of the total zooplankton abundance and biomass in Murmansk Coastal Water and Atlantic Water. Spring phase of zooplankton succession cycle was found in Arctic Water where Copepoda nauplii were the most abundant and Calanus glacialis dominated by zooplankton biomass. Zooplankton of the Barents Sea Water had features of spring and summer phases of zooplankton succession cycle. Spatial variations in the zooplankton distribution were associated with hydrological conditions and phytoplankton density. Maximum of the mean zooplankton biomass was registered in Atlantic Water (30,7 mg dry mass/m3) while the minimum was found in Barents Sea Water (5,4 mg dry mass/m3). Calculated daily production of zooplankton ranged from 0,01 to 1,57 mg dry mass/m3 per day. Total zooplankton stock for the study area of 281 000 km2 was estimated to be > 740 000 t of dry mass. The obtained values of zooplankton biomass and stock were considerably lower than in previous years, which are probably connected with higher predator pressure — grazing of zooplankton by capelin and other predators as well as with possible climatic influence.
For citation: Dvoretsky V.G., Dvoretsky A.G. Latitudinal variations of zooplankton community structure and productivity in the Barents sea (summer 2013). Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64 (3): 294–310. [In Russian].
| ||Lebedeva N.V., Fateev N.N. , Nikulina A.L., Zimina O.L., Garbul E.A. Mercury in components of
ecosystems of Western Spitsbergen fijord in summer, 2017.||311|
Keywords: benthos, Billefjord, bottom sediments, Grönfjord, Isfjord, marine water, mercury, summer period, Western Spitsbergen.
The total content of mercury was studied in marine water, sediments and benthic organisms in Billefjord, Isfjord and Gronfjord (Western Spitsbergen) in 2017. The samples were collected between 21 and 24 of July 2017 on-board RV “Dalnie Zelentsy” of Murmansk Marine Biological Institute. Total mercury content was measured at chemical-analytical laboratory of the Russian Scientific Center on Spitsbergen in Barentsburg.
Total mercury concentration in the water did not exceed 10 ng/l in all fjords. In the surface sediments the highest concentrations of total mercury were found in Isfjord (median 55 ng/g d.w.) while the Billefjord sediments were characterised by the lowest concentrations (median 10.4 ng/g d.w.). This fact might reflect the differences in water circulation and therefore sediment accumulation peculiarities.
Total mercury data were obtained for benthic organisms of various feeding modes. Generally mercury levels were comparatively low (median 12.2 ng/g w.w.), however the highest concentrations were measured in the benthic fauna of Isfjord, specifically in polychaetes Maldania sarsi (max. 49.2 ng/g w.w.). Mercury accumulation in benthic organisms predominantly depended on their trophic level in the ecosystem and location in the fjord: benthic detritus feeders accumulate more mercury (median 25.0 ng/g w.w.)
For citation: Lebedeva N.V., Fateev N.N., Nikulina A.L., Zimina O.L., Garbul E.A. Mercury in components of ecosystems of Western Spitsbergen fijord in summer, 2017. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64, 3: 311–325. [In Russian].
| ||Gagaev S.Yu. Similarity and difference of bioenergy characteristics of polychaetes in bottom communities in the shallow gulfs of the Arctic and Antarctic.||326|
Keywords: Barents sea, biomass, stock, zooplankton.
Comparison of energetic flow through bottom communities (on the example of polychaete populations) in the shallow bights the Chaun Bay (East Arctic) and the Fjord Nella (East Antarc-tic) located in high latitudes of opposite hemispheres of the planet is carried out for the first time. Polychaete worms abundantly and diversely represented in the bottom biocenosis and playing an important role in their life are one of the most suitable for this kind of analysis of the group. The material is collected and processed by common methods. It turned out that the average values of biomass and assimilation are comparable, although their indices are somewhat higher in Chaun Bay than in Nella Fjord, so the mean values of the current energy are 56 ± 25 and 40 ± 13 kcal / m2 per year, respectively. In this case, such similarity is mainly due to the duration of the light time due to the location of the bays on similar geographical latitudes. In both cases, it was noted that at lower depths, lower values of the energy flux are inherent in different sections of the gulf, due to freshening and abrasion of the ice, and higher — at great depths, where the conditions are more stable. It has been established that in the Chaun Bay the share of the biomass of suspension feeders is higher on hard bottom in the macrophyte belt, and on the muds occupying the largest areas of the bottom, deposit feeders predominate. In the Nella Fjord, on the contrary, large areas of the bottom are represented by hard substratum and are occupied, respectively, prevalence of suspension feeders, whereas non-large areas with a slight glossiness are used for life in small forms of infauna and which, according to the type of food, refer to deposit feeders. One of the distinguishing features of the assimilation in the considered bays is the tendency of its growth with depth in the Chaun Bay and its relative constancy in the Nella Fjord; the other is the achievement of relatively high values of the energy flux in some parts of the shallow Arctic com-pared with Antarctica. The differences are apparently explained by the complexity and variability of the water regime in the Chaun Bay and by the greater silting of the bottom, compared to the relatively constant natural conditions of the Nella Fjord, which together determine the features of the functioning of populations of polychaetes, as well as other groups of inhabitants.
The bioenergetic characteristics of bottom communities in the shallow bays of the Arctic and Antarctic have both differences and similarities, and, on the whole, depend on the physico-chemical originality of the areas.
For citation: Gagaev S.Yu. Similarity and difference of bioenergy characteristics of polychaetes in bottom communities in the shallow gulfs of the Arctic and Antarctic. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64, 3: 326–336. [In Russian].
| ||Korobov P.V. Numerical implementation of the initial-boundary value problem for nonlinear the onedimensional equations of poroelasticity for the water-ice system.||337|
Keywords: finite-difference scheme, hyperbolic system, porous media, the coefficient of friction.
This article is devoted to the problem of propagation of elastic transverse oscillations in a two-phase medium consisting of water and ice (ice impregnated with water). If we consider ice as a kind of porous homogeneous medium with constant partial density, then it becomes possible to apply the problems of the theory of filtration to the water-ice medium. In this paper, we consider one of the possible formulations of the direct problem modeling the propagation of a signal in this medium is considered. The initial-boundary value problem for a one-dimensional nonlinear system of poroelasticity equations is solved by numerical method on the basis of an explicit-difference scheme. A series of numerical calculations for a trial model of the media is presented.
The aim of the paper is to describe the approach to the study of water-ice media using the equations of filtration theory. The object of the study is the propagation of wave oscillations in such media. Such fluctuations can have different nature (seismic, acoustic, etc.). For example, it is of interest to use this approach to model the propagation of sea waves in the ice of the initial stage of ice formation.
For citation: Korobov P.V. Numerical implementation of the initial-boundary value problem for nonlinear the onedimensional equations of poroelasticity for the water-ice system. Problemy Arktiki i Antarktiki. Arctic and Antarctic Research. 2018, 64 (3): 337–343. [In Russian].
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